Public health-655- Topic 8 DQ 1- Complex Emergencies (Please see upload for full question).

Public health-655- Topic 8 DQ 1- Complex Emergencies (Please see upload for full question).


-The question will be uploaded
– Sources must be published within the last 5 years. It must be from 2017 and after and appropriate for the paper criteria and public health content.
– Please do not use blogs as references
-References should be in APA 7th ed.
-Please make sure you add the in text citations
-Add references to reference page
-Add the hyperlink/DOI for each reference in APA 7th edition format.
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Complex Emergency

A complex emergency is a humanitarian crisis that mostly occurs in a country due to conflicts or wars within the regions (Stoddard et al., 2017). Globally, there has been an increase in complex emergencies that threaten people’s lives. Complex emergencies have led to high morbidity and mortality rates because of high transmission rates of infectious diseases (Ismail et al., 2018). These diseases occur due to poor sanitation, overcrowding of people in refugee camps, malnutrition issues, and low healthcare services, leading to increased mortality rates. This study discusses complex emergencies, the role of humanitarian actors, why commercial interest is a conflict, examples of a complex crisis and lessons learnt.

Role of Humanitarian Actors

The humanitarian crisis is associated with natural disasters and other complex emergencies resulting from the conflict. Humanitarian actors have contributed a lot to ensure that the crisis victims have the necessary needs to cope with the situation. Humanitarian actors like the nation, international, military, NGOs, and other non-state actors have a crucial role in ensuring that disaster relief is provided accordingly and equally to the affected people (Archer & Dodman, 2017). They also adhere to the international humanitarian laws and values by educating the population and contributing effectively to the development of social programs and health.

Commercial Interests as Public Health

Commercial interests are a conflict because most entities that provide or market these healthcare goods and services are usually run by unqualified health workers that have been offered job opportunities with low payments. This leads to medical errors and health complications for the patients. For example, in most situations, doctors and nurses might start their unlicensed pharmaceuticals to provide medication, hiring unqualified health workers hence endangering the people’s lives. This compromises the public health strategies of preventing diseases and improving quality of life through quality care.

Example of Complex Emergency and Lessons Learnt

The protected constant wars in Afghanistan have led to frequent humanitarian aid. Despite the continuous assistance, the humanitarian aid outcomes remain low due to poor infrastructure and protected violence (Stoddard et al., 2017). These wars have led to increased food insecurity and larger population displacement. Some of the lessons learnt from the Afghanistan wars originate from a poor healthcare system with untrained professionals that could not provide essential treatment to the injured soldiers during the war, leading to higher mortality rates. Therefore, a country that constantly faces complex emergencies should have highly trained and advanced practical health professionals to provide quality care, especially in trauma injuries.




Archer, D., & Dodman, D. (2017). The urbanization of humanitarian crises. Environment and urbanization, 29(2), 339-348.

Ismail, M. B., Rafei, R., Dabboussi, F., & Hamze, M. (2018). Tuberculosis, war, and refugees: spotlight on the Syrian humanitarian crisis. PLoS pathogens, 14(6), e1007014.

Stoddard, A., Jillani, S., Caccavale, J., Cooke, P., Guillemois, D., & Klimentov, V. (2017). Out of reach: how insecurity prevents humanitarian aid from accessing the neediest. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 6(1).