Public health-655-Health And Burden Of Disease-Topic 3 DQ 2-Please see upload for full question.

Public health-655-Health And Burden Of Disease-Topic 3 DQ 2-Please see upload for full question


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Public health-655-Health and Burden of Disease-Topic 3 DQ 2

How have these outbreaks or pandemics directly and indirectly affected national and global economies?

Various outbreaks and pandemics, including the covid-19 pandemic, have had both a direct and indirect effect on national and global economies. For instance, the most recent pandemic, which is the Covid 19, led to a number of measures implemented by various governments across the world to try and control the spread of the virus. Such measures included social distancing and stay-at-home orders. Such measures had a direct and indirect effect on national and global economies (Ibn-Mohammed et al., 2021). The stay-at-home orders implemented by various national governments across the world eventually led to a reduction in economic activities and trade, which slowed down both national and global economies (Pak et al., 2020). National and global economies have been negatively impacted by the Covid19 Pandemic, with the general global economy being in a state of recession.

Explain how national and international health care systems have handled the outbreak. How have they differed in their methods?

National and international healthcare systems have handled the Covid- 19 outbreak differently. Most national healthcare systems are therefore concentrated on efforts to limit the spread of Covid-19 in communities. Most national healthcare systems have therefore adopted national strategies, including vaccination drives and wearing of masks to try and limit the spread of COVID-19. On the other hand, international healthcare systems have been focused on limiting the spread of covid-19 on a global scale. International health systems are focused on trying to ensure equality of resources such as vaccines in the fight against COVID19 (el Bcheraoui et al., 2020).

In what ways have the economies and the health care systems impacted each other during these outbreaks?

Economies and healthcare systems have significantly impacted each other during a pandemic outbreak. For instance, during the Covid 19 pandemic, some healthcare systems were negatively affected by the lack of patients who were afraid of seeking health care in light of the looming danger of contracting covid-19. Generally, it can therefore be stated that the pandemic has weakened some healthcare systems (Moynihan et al., 2021).

Provide at least three examples that depict the risk factors for disease.

Risk factors for the disease include age, race & ethnicity, and social status.



el Bcheraoui, C., Weishaar, H., Pozo-Martin, F., & Hanefeld, J. (2020). Assessing COVID-19 through the lens of health systems’ preparedness: time for a change. Globalization and Health, 16(1).

Ibn-Mohammed, T., Mustapha, K., Godsell, J., Adamu, Z., Babatunde, K., Akintade, D., Acquaye, A., Fujii, H., Ndiaye, M., Yamoah, F., & Koh, S. (2021). A critical analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the global economy and ecosystems and opportunities for circular economy strategies. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 164, 105169.

Moynihan, R., Sanders, S., Michaleff, Z. A., Scott, A. M., Clark, J., To, E. J., Jones, M., Kitchener, E., Fox, M., Johansson, M., Lang, E., Duggan, A., Scott, I., & Albarqouni, L. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on utilization of healthcare services: a systematic review. BMJ Open, 11(3), e045343.

Pak, A., Adegboye, O. A., Adekunle, A. I., Rahman, K. M., McBryde, E. S., & Eisen, D. P. (2020). Economic Consequences of the COVID-19 Outbreak: the Need for Epidemic Preparedness. Frontiers in Public Health, 8.