Read the following articles.

Provide three important points you took from each article:

  • Individualized Family-Centered Developmental Care: An Essential Model to Address the Unique Needs of Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (2018)
  • Asthma 101: Teaching children to use metered dose inhalers (2019)
  • Asthma self-management in children: a best practice implementation project (2019)
  • Kawasaki Disease in Infancy (2019)

You must provide a complete APA reference for one of the articles and reply to one peer. Initial posts must be no less than 250 word.

Individualized Family-Centered Developmental Care: An Essential Model to Address the Unique Needs of Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (2018)

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  1. Infants with critical congenital heart disease have 3-4x the risk of developing developmental learning disabilities, behavioral problems, mental health problems, and other developmental delays or deficits. The environment that infant is in does not help support the infant’s development of trust during this stage of their life, so it makes sense why these infants might have developmental delays.
  2. Sleep is required for the formation of synapses and facilitation of memory. Infants who are in the CICU do not get an adequate amount of sleep as they are often disrupted by routine medical work, excessive noise, or bright lights.
  3. The developing infant brain needs the voice and closeness of their mother and family in order to support the development of trust and security. While staying in the CICU, the infant is exposed to painful procedures and invasive lines and tubes. Rather than being close with their family members during this time developing trust, they are in unknown loud places experiencing painful stimuli. This has a huge impact on the baby’s ability to develop trust.

Asthma 101: Teaching children to use metered dose inhalers (2019)

  • Research has demonstrated that one barrier to asthma management is the incorrect use of inhalers and simple spacers. There are many different devices out there to manage asthma, each with different techniques for use. The vast amount of devices requiring different techniques causes confusion in both the patient and provider which decreases both efficacy and adherence to medication administration and thus asthma management.
  • The incorrect use of pMDI is found to deliver 50-80% of medication to the oropharynx rather than the lungs. This incorrect medication administration results in incorrect dosages and might explain why 54% of pediatric patients with asthma reported at least one asthma attack in 2016.
  • 75% of patients who were confident in their ability to use an inhaler with or without a VHC missed more than one of the eight steps required for proper usage. With the amount of devices available and different techniques for each, I can understand how confusion may occur. 15-69% of providers cannot demonstrate proper use of inhaler or VHC. If the provider cannot demonstrate proper use, then the patients won’t get the education on self administration necessary to manage their asthma.

Asthma self-management in children: a best practice implementation project (2019)

  • There is an estimated 250,000 deaths each year due to asthma. Many asthma fatalities are preventable but are still prevalent worldwide due to suboptimal long term management and delays in obtaining help help for asthma attacks.
  • Some patients and caregivers believe that steroids are toxic, hinder the growth of children, cause weight gain and lead to addiction. Patient teaching from medical professionals is essential in the prevention of beliefs like these that cause harm to those with asthma.
  • Education includes asthma triggers, warning signs, and treatment options. Due to the lack of time of Doctors, nurses provide patient teaching on medication administration for patients with asthma. An educational pamphlet, along with leaflet covering warning signs, treatment options, AAPs and four vidoes for different inhaler devices are provided to patients to help educate how to manage their asthma. Between 2009-2010 66% of children experienced an asthma attack which is why providing this education to patients with asthma and caregivers of patients with asthma is vital.

Kawasaki Disease in Infancy (2019)

  • If kawasaki disease is left untreated, 25% of children affected will develop coronary artery aneurysms. This is a difficult disease to treat as the main symptoms are fever and rash, which can be attributed to many other reasons. Symptoms may also be transient, making it that much harder to diagnose.
  • Even if the disease is treated within 10 days of infection, infants have much higher rate of developing coronary artery abnormalities. This is disheartening as it is a difficult disease to diagnose and the likelihood of coronary artery aneurysm is higher if it is not diagnosed, but even if treated within 10 days the infant still isn’t safe from negative impact on their heart.
  • Children who are over the age of 5 are more likely to not meet full diagnosis criteria, even if they have KD. Infants are also more likely to not meet full diagnostic criteria despite having KD. 10% of those who develop coronary aneurysms do not have all criteria for diagnosis. This disease is the leading cause of childhood acquired heart disease and yet seems impossible to catch in time. I can see why the emphasis is on prevention.


Individualized Family-Centered Developmental Care: An Essential Model to Address the Unique Needs of Infants with Congenital Heart Disease (2018)

  1. Infants with Congenital Heart Disease might develop slow growth compared to the infant born on normal conditions. The disease tends to accumulate more lipids in developing the child’s brain and leave out the body’s growth process. As a result, the child might look thin and younger than their age.
  2. During prenatal stages, Congenital Heart Disease in infants can be detected by the four-chamber screening, whereas the issue on the infant’s heart can be seen. Through this screening, effective diagnosis planning can be successful in that the parent and the doctors can be prepared effectively.
  3. The parents of the infant and the infant can experience PTSD due to the conditions of the infant. It is because the diagnosis can either heal or become worse in the infant’s growth.

Asthma 101: Teaching children to use metered-dose inhalers (2019)

  1. The inhaler has a mouthpiece that helps to effectively inject the medicine to the child into their mouths without exposing it to their eyes. The inhaler medicine has a great effect when exposed to eyes, whereas many children, according to research, have developed cataracts. This helps to reduce these risks by using a metered-dose.
  2. The inhaler should be well shaken because the medicine in the inhaler might have relaxed, creating layers. When the medication is taken without shaking, the inappropriate composition of the dose might be taken, weakening the strength of the medicine. The inhaler should be shaken well to create the perfect medicine mixture to be effective.
  3. If the child is using corticosteroids, they should rinse their mouths or even brush their teeth to prevent swallowing the medicine. It is because the corticosteroids might enter the bloodstream and generate many side effects and swollen legs.

Asthma self-management in children: a best practice implementation project (2019)

  1. Through data and choice help, the utilization of intuitive well-being specialized gadgets can change practices and, along these lines, work on tolerant personal satisfaction and decrease the weight of ailment. These gadgets work because the ideal way to impact practices is to learn explicit practices in a protected and animating climate before giving them a shot in a genuine climate.
  2. Asthma education creates awareness and enables parents to foresee the triggers and symptoms of asthma in the early stages. It helps in managing the disease before it gets critical.
  3. Approximately many people die out of asthma due to failing to notice the triggers of asthma. Managing asthma is to learn which environment is best for the child to avoid certain circumstances that can lead to fatality.

Kawasaki Disease in Infancy (2019)

  1. Kawasaki disease is linked to the gene mutation in infants or the virus that causes the disease. It is a critical issue in that it can develop into pediatric acquired heart disease.
  2. Kawasaki disease symptoms are not easy to understand in that it develops as a normal condition in infants. For instance, the infant’s fever might arise, and they can also develop skin rash in their bodies, especially the areas where the diaper is placed, which most infants suffer from.
  3. Kawasaki disease can make veins all around the body become aroused or enlarged. On the off chance that left untreated, the expanding can harm the vein dividers, especially those prompting the heart.