Assignment Essay Instruction
In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
In 250-300 words, explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview:
- What is ultimate reality?
- What is the nature of the universe?
- What is a human being?
- What is knowledge?
- What is your basis of ethics?
- What is the purpose of your existence?
APA Format is required
Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory Sample Essay
Worldviews entail a set of beliefs, philosophy of life and conception about the world. An individual’s worldview can entail values, emotions and ethics and not the physical nature of the world. The implication is that a person’s worldview represents their most fundamental beliefs and assumptions concerning the universe. As such, nurses as care providers deal with different patients who have diverse worldviews (Domingo-Osle & Domingo, 2020). Cultural competent care models implore nurses to possess worldviews and understand a host of worldviews to deal with patients in the most effective way. Spirituality and the Christian worldview are aspects of cultural care competency that nurses as healthcare providers must appreciate. The purpose of this paper is to offer a worldview analysis of different aspects of care and a personal inventory.
Christian Perspective of Nature of Spirituality and Ethics in Contrast to Postmodern Relativism with Health Care
Spirituality is a critical concept in care provision as it implores providers to implement holistic care. At its core, spirituality denotes the recognition of a feeling, sense or belief that there is something bigger than self, something beyond the human and sensory experience and that the greater whole of which individuals are part is diving or cosmic in nature. For Christians, spirituality has its foundation on knowledge of God and always seeking to understand one’s purpose for their existence in relation to God’s plan. Christianity exalts spirituality as the basis of finding one’s purpose and meaning in life when the individual gets connected to God.
Ethics denote to the moral principles that guide one’s behavior or conduct of any activity by distinguishing between good and bad, right and wrong. Again, Christians draw their ethical foundation from God as the moral and spiritual being who has a purpose for all people yet remain beyond our understanding. The implication is that the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics is based on biblical teachings of God as the absolute source of life and truth for all people (Domingo-Osle & Domingo, 2020). As such, spirituality in Christianity implies that one has the ability to call upon God to provide direction and help understand one’s condition at certain times, especially when afflicted with disease conditions. The spiritual and ethical aspects of Christianity advance that God allows individuals to get tested so that they can be closer to him. The example of Job in the bible demonstrates that spirituality and ethics are guided by God’s teachings and aimed at ensuring that individuals remain alert to avoid evil and suffering in the world.
While Christianity has its foundation in God as the author of truth and positive attributes in life, postmodern relativism asserts that truth and reality do not have a certain some. Postmodern relativism is categorical that truth is relative and depends on one’s position at such moments. The model suggests that nothing is absolute and truth is only subjective. As such, healthcare providers, especially nurses need to understand the conception of spirituality and ethics in both Christianity and for those who believe postmodern relativism so that they can reach better care decisions.
Scientism and Arguments Against It
The concept of scientism remains controversial, not just in healthcare but also in different aspects and spheres of life. At its core, scientism advances the view that science is the only objective means through one can determine the truth (Moreland, 2018). Scientism as a philosophy advances that only hard sciences like chemistry, astronomy, and physics as well as biology can offer genuine knowledge about reality. The implication is that scientific knowledge is superior to all what we may know from other disciplines (Pfeiffer, 2018). Therefore, ethics, religions and spirituality can only be accepted if they are understood to be inherently subjective and considered as private affairs of opinions.
Scientism opposes the claim that ethical and religious conclusions are just as factual as science. Proponents of scientism advance that these can only be affirmed as scientific truths, like the others, through inquiry, investigation and scientific proofs based on experimental observations. Without these proofs and experiments, these truths are a sign of bigotry and intolerance. The implication is that scientism does not give room to opinions and statements that do not have any scientific inquiry to demonstrate the truth about such situations.
However, two critical arguments against scientism arise based on scholarly research. Firstly, Moreland (2018) asserts that scientism may be a self-refuting theory or perspective as it does not generate all answers for different situations of human living and activities. For instance, what is the scientific proof of good morals and what needs to happen? Imperatively, scientism fails to answer fundamental questions about the existence and happening of different situations like miracles in life. Scientism can only provider answers to logical questions and not those based on morals like behavior and ethical values. Secondly, the free will of a human person is a situation that is beyond scientism as it cannot explain. For instance, science on aspects like neurology and neurosurgery have failed to account for the physiology behind free will, morality, and right and good functions of the human brain.
Personal Perspective and Worldview on
a). Ultimate Reality
My worldview is based on Christianity and the need to serve individuals selflessly with sacrificial love as demonstrated by Jesus Christ. Further, my perspective in life is that nature rewards good actions and showing love for others as a natural way that God purposed for humanity. The idea of ultimate reality revolves around the concept of God as the creator and source of life and the universe (Pfeiffer, 2018). I believe that human’s ultimate reality is the perspective that all are created in God’s image and should show love as the most important thing in one’s life. Individual’s actions in life should always consider the overall implications that such decisions have in relation to ultimate aspect that gives existence to human beings and life (Cristiano, 2020). Spirituality allows one to understand and experience the ultimate reality as beyond the physical existence of human beings and other living things on earth.
b). The Nature of the Universe
Nature entails the natural and environment perception of earth and existing things; both living and non-living. The universe entails all space and times as well as their contents like planets and galaxies and other kinds of matter and energy. The implication is that I consider universe beyond the physical nature yet it is an essential starting point but incorporate life and how individuals perceive it in their daily activities. From my Christian worldview and perspective, at the center of the Universe is God the creator who established all forms of life and other aspects of human living (Domingo-Osle & Domingo, 2020). Therefore, the conception of what we are and our purpose in the world constitute critical components of the term universe. Healthcare providers should not consider universe as the physical conditions alone but the behavioral aspects that emanate from human beings. The universe a concept implores one to seek meaning beyond the obvious and develop a critical approach to such situations.
c). Human Being
My Christian worldview is categorical that human beings are created in the image of God based on the concept of “Imago Dei.” The creation of human beings in God’s image is not physical and based on our appearance since God is not both man and woman but distinct in spiritual helm with authority and power beyond individuals’ comprehension (Boa, 2020). While part of God’s creation, a human being is distinct and only creature that shares in procreation with Him and given power to do more than other creations. Human beings have unique features, aspects and understanding that exhibits God’s knowledge. Human beings are inherently free and have the freewill to choose despite being created by God. The choice that one makes based on this freedom is critical as it informs of his next living before God. The implication is that human beings are God’s creation and equal. No one is better than another one since all have same destiny. Death equalizes all as God proclaimed that man shall return to dust.
Knowledge is an abstract concept whose presence can only be illustrated but whose existence is not physically proven. Knowledge entails the accumulation of skills, understanding and ideas as well as a way of doing things to attain certain outcomes or results in life. Human beings are not born with knowledge but acquire it as they grow and develop across the lifespan. Knowledge is also awareness that individuals develop through experiences on certain subjects or situations (Ho & Oh, 2022). Therefore, the knowledge about something leads to better understanding and appreciation demonstrated through application. Individuals’ accumulated experience is a component of knowledge aimed at helping them solve problems and situations. Formal and informal knowledge occur in life as individuals acquire new skills, new insights and focus their energies on developing certain conceptions about situations and what ought to happen (Filonenko et al., 2020). The implication is that knowledge comes when is open-minded, willing to absorb the abstract ideas and try them in life to solve problems and confer benefits to people in different ways.
e) Basis of Ethics
Ethics denote moral principles that govern one’s behaviors and conduct in society. The basis of my ethics is my Christian worldview which postulates that doing what God requires informs the actions of a true believer. As nurses, we are expected to follow a code of ethics and give patients the best care possible. This implies that our basis of ethics comes also from our professional roles and duty of care for patients and health populations that we interact with in normal daily activities (Cook, 2020). Ethical responsibility to society makes it fundamental for me to practice and value all people and ensure that I do what right. My conscience, upbringing and cultural values also influence my ethics and their application in life. My basis of ethics is therefore informed by interacting factors that impact my life; right from professional responsibilities to personal and societal expectations.
f). Purpose of my Existence
The purpose of my existence is to serve the will of my creator, God, by offering service to others. Nursing is a calling and all nurses go beyond the expected duties and roles to offer quality care as part of their purpose of existence. I believe that God created me to make a difference in the world and leave it a better place for human posterity and development (Filonenko et al., 2020). I live knowing that I have significant impact on the lives of many people; both loved and those not so close. I believe that my actions and decisions should also focus on not only my good and benefit but for the good and just aspects of society and all dwelling in it. Developing solutions to problems and leading with others to implement such interventions form the basis of my belief in my existence on earth.
The need for nurses to have and use their worldview is essential in provision of quality patient care. Individuals have diverse worldviews and these are critical for nurses to understand so that they make better decisions. I believe that having a worldview and personal inventory allows nurses to accept diverse patients and offer the best care interventions. The implication is that nursing is dynamic and having personal inventory allows them to enhance their self-awareness so that they can make better decisions in care provision.
Boa, K. D. (2020). Conformed to His Image, Revised Edition: Biblical, Practical Approaches to
Spiritual Formation. Zondervan Academic.
Cristiano, A. (2020). 4.5 AI (Artificial Intelligence) and Ultimate Reality. Ultimate Reality and
Meaning, 36(3-4), 127-143. DOI: 10.3138/uram.36.3-4.127
Cook, B. J. (2020). Restraining the Unitary Executive: A Regime Ethics Basis for Administrator
Defiance of Presidential Directives. Public Integrity, 22(4), 305-315. https://doi.org/10.1080/10999922.2019.1619441
Domingo-Osle, M., & Domingo, R. (2020). Nursing and spirituality: A discussion paper on ‐
intertwining metaparadigms. Journal of Nursing Management. DOI: 10.1111/jonm.13076
Filonenko, L., Furdui, S., Maksymchuk, B., Demchenko, I., Vysochan, L., Pletenicka, L., … &
Maksymchuk, I. (2020). Historical aspects of forming the value attitude to human being
at pupils of sports boarding schools. Scientific Journal of National Pedagogical
Dragomanov University. Series 15. Scientific and pedagogical problems of physical
culture (physical culture and sports), (1 (121)), 107-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.608949
Ho, T. T. T., & Oh, J. (2022). Development and Evaluation of Cultural Competence Course on
Undergraduate Nursing Students in Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(2), 888. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19020888
Moreland, J. P. (2018). What Is Scientism? https://www.crossway.org/articles/what-is-scientism/
Pfeiffer, J. (2018). Strategies Christian nurses use to create a healing environment. Religions,
9(11), 352-364. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9110352