Visit the Center for Disease Control website (Links to an external site.) and go to the Diseases and Conditions pages.
Choose a topic of interest and review any data or statistics provided under that topic. Discuss how evidence-based practice and epidemiology are used to improve prevention and health promotion in your chosen topic.
Response 1: (Erika)
Per the CDC website and link under “Prediabetes-Your chance to prevent Type 2 Diabetes,” approximately 88 million American adults, have pre-diabetes (Pre-DM) and 84% are fully aware they have it. This increases their risk of developing Type 2 DM, heart disease, and stroke. The national diabetes prevention program promotes lifestyle change program to help patients prevent the development of Type 2 DM by 58% (with up to 71% noted to be over 65 yrs of age), this is an evidenced-based solution. Lifestyle changes have been proven to be more effective than medication in preventing the development of Type 2 DM from Pre-DM. The lifestyle change program includes encouragement of weight loss and other healthy changes to aid in lowering risk of type 2 DM development as well as, heart attack, and stroke. (CDC, 2021)
The Diabetes prevention program is also noted to be a multicenter clinical research study, which included diet and physical activity and confirmed patients were able to reach weight loss of 5-7% body weight (approximately 10-14 lbs for a 200 lb person) and this resulted in reduction of risk of development of Type 2 DM by 58% in high risk adults. 10 yr follow up showed positive results in one third of those participants still less likely to develop type 2 DM than those who were placed on a placebo. (CDC, 2021)
Healthcare providers benefit from national statistical information, such as that one-third of patients at and over the age of 18 have pre-DM, with the risk of developing type 2 DM. This aids providers in screening more carefully for those in that age group for pre-DM status. (CDC, 2021)
The information located on the CDC website under disease and conditions are helpful in providing direction and evidenced based information and guidelines to assist in the prevention of the development of Type 2 DM for pre-DM patients of all ages with appropriate lifestyle changes, early diagnosis, support groups/programs. Very useful information.
Response 2 (chislon)
DHD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is defined as manifesting in individuals and causing them to experience “trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active” (para 2). Per the CDC, the number of children affected by ADHD has changed over time, with numbers growing vastly over the last five years alone (p. 3). As such, education and treatment are key in addressing ADHD, although currently there is no known cure. Additionally, most children with ADHD have coexisting conditions such as anxiety (p. 3). A parental survey from 2016 observed that over seventy percent of children were taking medication for treatment; however, it was not noted if they were also receiving behavioral assistance such as therapy or counseling. A review of overall treatment showed that children afflicted with ADHD experienced treatment gaps which could adversely affect their health and progress, therefore, a combination of medication and therapy would be the best response.
Evidence based practice would reflect that programs such as Focus on the Future would be a solid means of ensuring that affected young people with ADHD could receive the support to which they are entitled. Organizations such as this one are dedicated to educating both families and the public concerning ADHD, providing young people with tools to live effectively with ADHD, and using national data which is consolidated by the group to assist in formulating efficient treatment plans for those in need. Too this group partners with the CDC in raising overall awareness and sharing the latest research as to how ADHD may be combatted, thereby supporting those who live with this condition and offering them assistance in living fruitfully even with the limitations this condition sometimes creates.
Pre-diabetes refers to a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but the levels cannot be diagnosed as diabetes. 1in 3 Americans has pre-diabetes; however, more than 84% are unaware of the conditions. Pre-diabetes increase the risk of developing other conditions such as type 2 diabetes, stroke, and heart diseases. There are several risk factors for being pre-diabetic, including being over 45 years old, overweight, physical inactivity, and having a family history of diabetes (Davidson et al., 2021). In 2010, the CDC created a diabetes prevention program to respond to the rising burden of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. The program saw the creation of partnerships between the public and private institutions such as private insurers, faith-based organizations, employers, and government agencies to provide evidence-based and cost-effective solutions that would prevent an increase in type 2 diabetes burden. A major component of the national program is the lifestyle change program incorporates a trained lifestyle coach; to guide those who enroll in adjusting accordingly, a curriculum approved by the CDC, and a support group for 1 year. The information obtained from the program is crucial in guiding care practice and prevention strategies since the program employs research strategies to find the most effective means of preventing diabetes (Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 2020).
DHD or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that commonly affects children and lasts throughout adulthood. The condition is characterized by excessive daydreaming, talking too much, taking unnecessary risks, forgetfulness, and fidgeting. There are three types, including inattentive presentation, hyperactive, impulsive presentation, and combined presentation that includes the symptom of both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive presentations. The condition’s cause is related to genetics; however other risk factors include brain damage, exposure to environmental risk factors such as lead at a young age, low birth weight or premature delivery, and substance abuse during pregnancy. The condition is mainly treated using a combination of therapy and medications. However, for children younger than 6 years, the first line of treatment includes training the parent on behavior management. For those above 6 years, behavioral therapy is combined with medications. Stimulants such as amphetamine are commonly used since they have been shown to have calming effects on patients (Faraone et al., 2021).
Center for Disease Prevention and Control, (2020) Prediabetes – Your Chance to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/prediabetes.html
Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., … & US Preventive Services Task Force. (2021). Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 326(8), 736-743. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2783414
Faraone, S. V., Banaschewski, T., Coghill, D., Zheng, Y., Biederman, J., Bellgrove, M. A., … & Wang, Y. (2021). The world federation of ADHD international consensus statement: 208 evidence-based conclusions about the disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014976342100049X