Ethical Health Promotion

Ethical Health Promotion

 

Find a scholarly, peer-reviewed article no more than four years old that discusses an ethical health promotion-related issue.

In your paper:

Briefly summarize the presented issue.
Describe your thoughts on the role health care professionals should play in resolving the ethical issue.
Provide specific theories and refer to specific ethical codes to support your position.
Your paper should be 2–3 pages long. Use APA to cite and reference the article and any other optional sources you use. Adhere to APA formatting throughout your paper.

Due: Sunday, 11:59 p.m. (Pacific time)

Points: 100

Rubric
NURS_561_DE – Paper/Essay Rubric
NURS_561_DE – Paper/Essay Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Content
40 to >31.6 pts
Meets Expectations
The writer clearly and effectively responds to the assignment.
31.6 to >23.6 pts
Approaches Expectations
The response to the assignment is generally adequate but may not be thorough.
23.6 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The writer does not respond to the assignment.
40 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Focus and Detail
30 to >23.7 pts
Meets Expectations
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear and are well supported by detailed and accurate information.
23.7 to >17.7 pts
Approaches Expectations
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear but are not well supported by detailed information.
17.7 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The topic and main ideas are not clear.
30 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Organization
20 to >15.8 pts
Meets Expectations
The introduction is inviting, states the main topic, and provides an overview of the paper. Information is relevant and presented in a logical order. The conclusion is strong.
15.8 to >11.8 pts
Approaches Expectations
The introduction states the main topic and provides an overview of the paper. A conclusion is included.
11.8 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
There is no clear introduction, structure, or conclusion.
20 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Mechanics and APA
10 to >7.9 pts
Meets Expectations
The assignment consistently follows current APA format and is free from errors in formatting, citation, and references. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. All sources are cited and referenced correctly.
7.9 to >5.9 pts
Approaches Expectations
The assignment consistently follows current APA format with only isolated and inconsistent mistakes and/or has a few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Most sources are cited and referenced correctly.
5.9 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The assignment does not follow current APA format and/or has many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Many sources are cited and referenced incorrectly, or citations and references are missing.
10 pts
Total Points: 100

 

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Solution

Briefly Summarize the Presented Issue

One of the most relevant ethical health promotion-related issues in contemporary time is the use of fear appeal targeted on specific populations in a bid to promote better health behaviors. As the prevalence of non-communicable diseases has continued to rise in contemporary times, including chronic respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Public health practitioners and other healthcare practitioners charged with improving the general health of the public and controlling the prevalence of non-communicable diseases have become more blatant in their use of the fear appeal in a bid to promote better health behaviors among populations(Moussaoui et al., 2021). The utilization of the fear appeal in health promotion has mainly targeted individuals who engage in different behaviors that can be considered unhealthy such as physical inactivity, tobacco use, unhealthy diet, and alcohol abuse (Moussaoui et al., 2021).

According to Moussaoui et al. (2021), most health promotion campaigns rely on fear appeal because of the common belief that scaring people will make them adopt specific suggested changes. On the other hand, there are significant ethical issues that are associated with health promotion messages that rely on the fear appeal, including respect for individual autonomy and freedom of choice. One of the main ethical principles of health promotion relates to autonomy (Moussaoui et al., 2021). Through the principles of autonomy, individuals, including target populations, have a right to make informed decisions related to their health while also possessing the freedom of choice is, especially when it comes to their health. The use of fear appeals for health promotion messages such as using such appeals to target individuals such as smokers goes against one of the main ethical principles of health promotion which is autonomy. By using fear-based appeals, public health practitioners infringe on the right of individuals to make autonomous decisions based on information but instead seek to promote an emotional reaction from target populations (Moussaoui et al., 2021). The use of fear-based appeals for health promotion takes a right for autonomy and individual choice from target populations and introduces an element of irrational decision-making that is based on fear of certain consequences. The use of fear-based a in health promotion appears to be manipulative to patients and can be clearly categorized as being an unethical method of enhancing a health promotion. Fear-based appeals in health promotion campaigns significantly affect the ability of targeted populations to make autonomous decisions related to their health, such as the lifestyle to adopt, foods to eat or environments to live in (Moussaoui et al., 2021).

Describe your thoughts on the role health care professionals should play in resolving the ethical issue. Provide specific theories and refer to specific ethical codes to support your position.

Health care professionals can play a significant role in dealing with the ethical issue of health promotion related to the use of fear-based appeals. Healthcare practitioners can rely on theories based on rights and the autonomy bioethical principle. The ethical theories that are based on right highlight that every individual in society will be protected and given high priority. The rights of all individuals in a society are valid and ethically correct as they are endorsed by the majority of the population. Considering ethical theory based on rights on of the basic and universal rights of every human being is the right to autonomy and self-determination. In most societies, the right of autonomy and self-determination is therefore viewed as one of the most important rights and consistently emphasized in different settings (Biagetti et al., 2020). For example, in the United States, liberty is one of the most important rights of citizens, which includes the right to autonomy and self-determination. The right for autonomy and self-determination is included in any form of medical interaction between individual healthcare practitioners and health care services through the bioethical principle of autonomy. Healthcare practitioners are required to provide sufficient information to individuals, including patients, and to let such individuals make their own decisions related to their health without any undue pressure or external influence. The use of pressure tactics such as fear appeal in health promotion can therefore be classified as an unethical practice because it infringes on the right of autonomy of target populations (Biagetti et al., 2020).

Considering the unethical strategy of the use of fear-based appeals in health promotion, health care professionals should be actively involved in minimizing the use of such negative appeals on target populations. Healthcare professionals should be actively involved in drafting messages for health promotion campaigns and ensure that such campaigns utilize the right appeals, including information appeal so as to protect the autonomy of target populations in making decisions (Moussaoui et al., 2021). Ensuring the correct framing of messages in health promotion campaigns can therefore go a long way in protecting the autonomy and freedom of choice of populations and ensuring that populations that are targeted with health promotion messages are not manipulated through strategies such as fear-based appeal but rather educated and left to make their own decisions related to their health. Respect for the right to autonomy is an essential principle in health promotion that should be actively guarded by healthcare professionals (Moussaoui et al., 2021).

 

 

 

 

References

Biagetti, M. T., Gedutis, A., & Ma, L. (2020). Ethical Theories in Research Evaluation: An Exploratory Approach. Scholarly Assessment Reports, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.29024/sar.19

Moussaoui, L. S., Claxton, N., & Desrichard, O. (2021). Fear appeals to promote better health behaviors: an investigation of potential mediators. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, 9(1), 600–618. https://doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2021.1947290

 

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