Read the following articles. Provide three important points you took from each article:
• ADHD: From childhood to young adulthood (2018)
• Call for action: Addressing obesity in early childhood (2019)
• Youth Sports and Physical Activity: Innovative Perspectives on the Role of Health Care Professionals (2018)
• Adolescent use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (2018)
You must provide a complete APA reference for one of the articles and reply to one peer. Initial posts must be no less than 250 word and follow-up responses no less than 150 words.

You can use as an example how I want you to discuss about the all 4 articles. THIS IS FOR EXAMPLE, DO NOT COPE WITH THIS
ADHD: From childhood to young adulthood (2018)
I did not know that ADHD affects about 6.4 billion (11%) of school-aged children (age 4-17 years old) in the United States. Males are diagnosed at 2x the rate of females, potentially because males tend to present with hyperactivity and females tend to present with inattention. Studies have also found that Black and Hispanic children are diagnoses and treated at a significantly lower rate than White children.
I appreciated that they brought up 504 Service Plans because there is a stigmatization around these in school. I noticed growing up that a lot of my peers saw others with a 504 plan as less than and easy to bully. I did not know all that a 504 plan includes. Some accommodations that it includes are seating in the front of the classroom, supplemental verbal instructions with visual or written instructions, trackers/reminders for homework, a personalized schedule, organized teacher assistant, modified test delivery, extended test time, assistance with long-term projects, tailored homework assignments, and systematic rewards and consequences. These plans make education more accessible for kids who may not learn in same way as most other students.
I found it interesting that studies are showing there is a potential for linear growth impairment with psychostimulant medications. I am not sure if it is still this way, but there was a time where my school district was requesting a large portion of the children be tested for ADHD and put on medications. I have a friend who works as an ABA therapist and attends school with one of her clients, a majority of his class is on some form of ADHD medication.

Call for action: Addressing obesity in early childhood (2019)
I liked that this article made a point that the consequences of obesity are psychological, physiological, and socioeconomic. Also, the most successful interventions are multidimensional, including diet and physical activity in school, community, and home life setting.
When treating obesity, it is important to focus on the family and primary caregiver to get an idea of eating practices, they influence the child from an early age. Culture and feeding practice are also important to examine when treating childhood obesity.
This article brought up different policies that are geared towards reducing the childhood obesity levels in the United States but without education, support, and personal desire to change habits, these obesity prevention policies will have minimal impact.

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Youth Sports and Physical Activity: Innovative Perspectives on the Role of Health Care Professionals (2018)
In the last decade, obesity in adolescents has increased and it is being found that many do not have basic physical literacy. This means that they are having troubles running, skipping, dodging, hopping, and jumping like other kids in their age group.
I found it interesting that the Aspen Institute is trying to encourage physicians to be part of youth sports beyond doing the required yearly physical. At a conference in 2014 they came up with 7 goals to engage youth in sports and prevent injuries. These included be active and have fun (creating guidelines for daily physical activity), be inclusive of all children, encourage age-appropriate sports, encourage early sports diversification (do not play sports year-round or stick to just one sport), required recovery time, prevent overuse injuries, and manage concussions.
In the last decade, it has been found that participation in youth sports has declined and negative impacts have emerged. There are roughly 2.6 million emergency department visits per year related to youth sports. I am curious about the statement that participation in sports has declined, what might be leading to this decline.
Adolescent use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (2018)
It was interesting to find out that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) were originally developed in China with the goal of assisting with smoking cessation. I am curious as to how swapping from traditional cigarettes to an electronic nicotine delivery device would help assist with smoking cessation, you are still receiving nicotine.
Before 2016, the FDA did not have the authority to oversee tobacco products such as e-cigarettes, hookah, tobacco, and other products. This meant it was not prohibited for retailers to sell the products to individuals under 18 years of age.
As of 2018, some devices had about 7,000 different flavors you could purchase. Up to 75% of those flavors included chemicals that are linked with the development of obliterative bronchitis, also known as “popcorn lung”. And it was found that 1 teaspoon of the liquid nicotine used in these devises can be fatal to young children.
Vincent, D., Potts, J., Durbin, J., Moore, J. M., & Eley, S. (2018). Adolescent use of electronic nicotine delivery systems. The Nurse Practitioner, 43(3), 17 21. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000530308.76316.2b





ADHD: From childhood to young adulthood (2018)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a commonly encountered neurodevelopmental disorder. It is commonly diagnosed at 7 years of age, and most of the cases are diagnosed before an individual turns 9. Males are two times likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than females; however, the rate of the comorbid condition is higher in females. Globally 12% of the population is affected, and nearly 80% of children with ADHD parents will develop the condition since it is inherited. When diagnosed at a younger age, the symptoms are likely to be severe later in life. The primary treatment includes behavioral intervention for those between 4 -6 years. However, for children above 6 years combination of behavioral intervention and medication produces the best outcomes (Wesemann & Van Cleve, 2018).

Call for action: Addressing obesity in early childhood (2019)

Obesity is a major health issue in the US, and approximately 20% of infants are obese. The challenge with obese children is that they are likely to grow up to obese adults. Among the children, the obese-related medical cost is estimated to be $14 billion, while approximately $190.2 billion for adults. Obesity is driven by multidimensional factors and cannot be addressed by only a single modification such as physical activity; Care providers need to engage parents and infants before introducing solid foods, to help the parent understand and adopt healthy eating behaviors for the infants. Parents also need to be educated on the need to adopt a healthy lifestyle such as engagement in physical activity, proper sleeping, and healthy eating behavior to promote a healthy weight (Bushaw, 2019).

Youth Sports and Physical Activity: Innovative Perspectives on the Role of Health Care Professionals

Engagement of the youths in sports and physical activities has the potential to address some of the health concerns such as obesity. However, it is also associated with negative impacts such as 2.5 million visits to the emergency department. Healthcare providers need to be involved in preventing the negative impacts of engagement in sports and physical activity among the youth. The role of care professionals in sports and physical activity will include contributing to the development of policies and regulations on sports and physical activity, providing counseling about sports, and recommending the best physical activities to engage in for their patients. Care providers can also provide training to the sports coaches on safety measures in sports to prevent the negative impacts that lead to emergency department visits. The involvement of care providers in sports is also likely to increase awareness about the importance of sports and lead to increased engagement in sports among the youths (Spengler et al., 2019).

Adolescent use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) (2018)

The use of ENDS has been steadily increasing in the US despite the efforts to curb nicotine smoking and addiction. One of the major misconceptions among the youths is that ENDS are safer than traditional tobacco products, contributing to the increased usage of these products. However, research has shown that ENDS negatively impacts the body systems; for example, the flavors used can lead to bronchiolitis obliterans, among other conditions. If the nicotine is ingested, it can lead to toxicity affecting the cardiovascular, central nervous, and pulmonary systems (Vincent et al., 2018).



Bushaw, A. (2019). Call for action: Addressing obesity in early childhood. The Nurse Practitioner44(9), 11-14. https://journals.lww.com/tnpj/Fulltext/2019/09000/Call_for_action__Addressing_obesity_in_early.3.aspx

Spengler, J. O., Smith, A. D., Maddock, J. E., & Stasi, S. M. (2018). Youth Sports and Physical Activity: Innovative Perspectives on the Role of Health Care Professionals. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice24(2), 96-98. https://journals.lww.com/jphmp/FullText/2018/03000/Youth_Sports_and_Physical_Activity__Innovative.2.aspx

Vincent, D., Potts, J., Durbin, J., Moore, J. M., & Eley, S. (2018). Adolescent use of electronic nicotine delivery systems. The Nurse Practitioner43(3), 17-21 https://journals.lww.com/tnpj/Fulltext/2018/03000/Adolescent_use_of_electronic_nicotine_delivery.4.aspx

Wesemann, D., & Van Cleve, S. N. (2018). ADHD: From childhood to young adulthood. The Nurse Practitioner43(3), 8-15. https://journals.lww.com/tnpj/Fulltext/2018/03000/ADHD__From_childhood_to_young_adulthood.2.aspx