Diabetes pharmology

Diabetes pharmology


One page discussion – you may pick the type of diabetes to discuss it is either type 1. type2 or gestational



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Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of beta cells by the immune cells and is also associated with some viruses. The condition is chronic and is usually diagnosed during childhood or adolescence but can also occur during the adult stage. Currently, there is no cure for diabetes type 1, and it is mainly managed through insulin injections and lifestyle modification, including diet to control blood glucose levels (Beck et al., 2019).There are five types of insulin for type 1 diabetes patients, including rapid-acting insulin, which works within 15 mins after the injection, reaches the peak in 1 hour, and is effective for up to 4 hours. Short-acting or regular insulin, effective starting 30 mins after injection, reaches a peak after 3 hours, and is effective for up to 6 hours. Intermediate-acting insulin takes effect 4 hours after injection, remains at peak for up to 12 hours, and the impact lasts up to 18 hours. Long-acting usually takes several hours and is effective even after 24 hours. To use insulin, the patient must regularly monitor blood glucose levels 30 minutes before they eat; depending on the type of insulin, they can administer insulin 30 minutes before the meal or immediately they start the meal. Long-term use of insulin is associated with increased weight gain, severe hypoglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular incidents such as heart attack, and development of pancreatic cancer (Warshauer et al., 2020).

Dietary consideration for type 1 diabetes patients includes eating 3 balanced meals simultaneously every day, reducing the intake of drinks with high sugar content and fatty foods, ensuring that one does not skip meals, and eating foods low in sodium. Long-term impacts of type 1 diabetes include nephropathy and neuropathy such as foot damage, cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, and eye damage including retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts (DiMeglio et al., 2018).



Beck, R. W., Bergenstal, R. M., Laffel, L. M., & Pickup, J. C. (2019). Advances in technology for management of type 1 diabetes. The Lancet394(10205), 1265-1273. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0140673619311420

DiMeglio, L. A., Evans-Molina, C., & Oram, R. A. (2018). Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet391(10138), 2449-2462. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0140673618313205

Warshauer, J. T., Bluestone, J. A., & Anderson, M. S. (2020). New frontiers in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Cell metabolism31(1), 46-61. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550413119306242