Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Essays

Diabetes and Drug Treatments Discussion Essays

Post a brief explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, gestational, and juvenile diabetes.

Describe one type of drug used to treat the type of diabetes you selected, including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.


Major Types of Diabetes Mellitus

The prevalence of various types of diabetes among Americans has increased significantly in past decades. First, Americans are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). This type of diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells, making the body unable to release insulin (Eizirik et al., 2020). T1DM’s common symptoms include increased thirst; frequent urination; bed-wetting in children with no history of wetting bed at night; experiencing excessive hunger; unintended weight loss; becoming irritated and experiencing mood changes; having a blurry vision; and feeling excessively tired and weak (Eizirik et al., 2020). The onset of type 1 diabetes Mellitus mainly occurs during childhood (Eizirik et al., 2020). Nonetheless, few individuals develop T1DM during adulthood.

Secondly, type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes diagnosed among Americans. Studies show that T2DM represents approximately 90% of all diabetes diagnoses (Ortiz-Martínez et al., 2022). A reduced response to insulin characterizes this condition. Therefore, T2DM is described as an insulin-resistance condition. The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes Mellitus include increased thirst, frequent urination, unintended weight loss, increased hunger, fatigue, slow-healing sores, blurred vision, and frequent infections (Ortiz-Martínez et al., 2022). T2DM is considered adult-onset diabetes. Nonetheless, few cases are diagnosed during childhood or adolescence.

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Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is another common type of diabetes Mellitus diagnosed during pregnancy. It develops due to interference of the body’s ability to use insulin effectively by hormones released by the placenta. GDM is characterized by a significantly high degree of glucose intolerance, recognized for the first time during pregnancy (Huang et al., 2021). The most common symptoms of GDM include frequent and increased urination, excess fatigue; increased thirst; nausea and vomiting; weight loss despite increased appetite, recurring yeast infection, and blurred vision. GDM requires effective management through medications and diet therapies to prevent potential adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

Lastly, juvenile diabetes Mellitus develops during childhood. It is characterized by blood glucose measurements, including random or fasting plasma glucose equal to or higher than 200 mg/ or 126 mg/dl, respectively (Mayer-Davis et al., 2018). Additionally, a juvenile diabetes diagnosis is based on symptoms, including increased thirst, frequent urination accompanied by bed-wetting in a child with no history of wetting the bed at night; unintentional weight loss; extreme hunger, fatigue, behavior changes or irritability, or fruity-smelling breath.

The selected type of diabetes is gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has approved insulin therapy as the first-line pharmacological treatment for GDM in the United States (Johns et al., 2018). Intermediate-acting insulin, specifically isophane (NPH), is given to expectant mothers with GDM when medical and nutritional therapy does not achieve desired glucose control. Isophane (NPH) is an insoluble intermediate-acting insulin formulation. It is administered via subcutaneous injection once or twice daily, immediately after mixing. It is given between 30 and 60 minutes before taking a meal.

Gestational diabetes Mellitus (GDM) results in short-term health complications, including excessive birth weight, shoulder dystocia, hypoglycemia, and birth trauma (Murray & Reynolds, 2020). Additionally, GDM leads to long-term risks, including a high risk of childhood and adulthood obesity and cardiometabolic in children born to mothers with GDM. In GDM, isophane (NPH) aims to reverse hyperglycemia caused by impaired glucose tolerance attributed to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Therefore, giving drug therapy to GDM patients prevents potential adverse pregnancy outcomes such as excessive birth weight.


Eizirik, D. L., Pasquali, L., & Cnop, M. (2020). Pancreatic β-cells in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: different pathways to failure. Nature Reviews Endocrinology16(7), 349-362.

Huang, S., Wischik, D. L., Whittemore, R., Jeon, S., Qing, L., & Guo, J. (2022). Determinants of elevated depressive symptoms in Chinese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Birth49(2), 289–297.

Johns, E. C., Denison, F. C., Norman, J. E., & Reynolds, R. M. (2018). Gestational diabetes mellitus: mechanisms, treatment, and complications. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism29(11), 743–754.

Mayer-Davis, E. J., Kahkoska, A. R., Jefferies, C., Dabelea, D., Balde, N., Gong, C. X., … & Craig, M. E. (2018). ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2018: Definition, epidemiology, and classification of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatric Diabetes19(27), 1-7.

Murray, S. R., & Reynolds, R. M. (2020). Short‐and long‐term outcomes of gestational diabetes and its treatment on fetal development. Prenatal Diagnosis40(9), 1085–1091.

Ortiz-Martínez, M., González-González, M., Martagón, A. J., Hlavinka, V., Willson, R. C., & Rito-Palomares, M. (2022). Recent developments in biomarkers for diagnosis and screening of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current Diabetes Reports22(3), 95-115.



Diabetes and Drug Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic illness that occurs when there is too high glucose or blood sugar in the body. This happens when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin or fails to produce insulin at all and also when the body is not adequately responding to the effects of insulin. Persons of all ages can be potentially affected by diabetes. In most instances, diabetes illnesses are chronic, meaning they are lifelong, but they are manageable using lifestyle changes and medications. Some types of diabetes include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2018).

Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, emerges as a chronic condition. This condition causes the pancreas to produce insufficient or no insulin. Insulin is useful in the body in ensuring the cells are able to produce energy. There are diverse factors that may cause type 1 diabetes, such as viruses and genetic factors. Although this form of diabetes is common among adolescents and children, it is also found among adults (Nally et al., 2019). However, type 1 diabetes does not have a cure. Patients are able to contain the effects of this condition using management strategies and medications that help manage sugar levels.

Recommended Metformin

Type 1 diabetes can be managed using Metformin drug. The drug is useful in decreasing the requirements of insulin and thus is crucial in the improvement of metabolic control among patients. This medication was also found to decrease the volumes of insulin by an estimated 6.6 units in a day and also helped patients reduce weight and levels of cholesterol (Nally et al., 2019). The drug is available in tablet, liquid form, and also as extended-release tablet. The drug should be taken during meals to minimize bowel discomforts that usually take place in the initial weeks of treatment. The tablet should be swallowed whole using a full glass of water. It is advisable not to break, chew or crush the tablet. Metformin should be taken once a day or twice a day orally (Nally et al., 2019).

In addition to this medication, type 1 diabetes can be adequately managed using dietary strategies. A diet made of carbohydrates such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits, low-fat milk, and legumes is recommended. Diabetic patients are always advised to avoid sweetened juices and sugars. However, there is no certain way of measuring the amounts of carbohydrate intake, but it is advisable to always monitor the intake using advanced or basic carbohydrate counting. This is because carbohydrates in the body are able, in a larger manner, to determine the extent of post-prandial blood sugar and, consequently, insulin adjustment quantities (Rosenthal, 2021).

Long and short-term effects of Type 1 Diabetes

Type one diabetes has the potential to cause immense complications and impacts vital organs. For instance, it can adversely harm the heart, nerves, blood vessels, kidneys, and eyes. Some short-term effects of type 1 diabetes include increased thirst, fatigue, headache, blurred vision, and frequent urination. There are also some long-term effects, including an increased risk of suffering from stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and heart disease. The condition is also responsible for causing pregnancy complications due to high blood sugar hence causing miscarriages, birth defects, and stillbirths (Pathak et al., 2021).  Additionally, treatment of type 1 diabetes using Metformin can cause a deficiency of Vitamin B12 when taken for a long time.


American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetesLinks to an external site.—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

Nally, L. M., Sherr, J. L., Van Name, M. A., Patel, A. D., & Tamborlane, W. V. (2019). Pharmacologic treatment options for type 1 diabetes: what’s new? Expert review of clinical pharmacology12(5), 471–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2019.1597705

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants(2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Pathak, V., Pathak, N. M., O’Neill, C. L., Guduric-Fuchs, J., & Medina, R. J. (2019). Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives. Clinical medicine insights. Endocrinology and diabetes12, 1179551419844521. https://doi.org/10.1177/1179551419844521