Community Strategic Plan: Part B
For this assignment, you will research and prepare a community-level strategic plan that addresses a key public health issue.
Potential topics may include ( YOU CAN CHOOSE)
Using prenatal and infancy home visits to prevent child abuse and neglect
Preventing falls in the elderly
Reducing population salt intake
Reducing tobacco use among adults
Preventing risky sexual behavior among youth and young adults
Reducing drug experimentation among young adults
Include the following in your paper:
Provide an overview of the community health issue as described in Part A ( IT IS ATTACHED) with identified causes and influences, including knowledge gaps.
Detail the prevalence of the issue inside and outside the United States.
Describe potential monetary costs associated with the issue in the United States.
You must include data as part of your introduction (images, charts, graphs, etc., may be included as well as written data).
Describe advance practice roles and management strategies that affect change at the community level.
Identify key community and social resources that negatively and positively affect the selected issue.
Identify changes or enhancements in community-related services for your selected topic.
Develop a strategic plan that could decrease the prevalence of your selected topic.The goals for this plan needs to be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound. Include how your plan takes into consideration health literacy, socioeconomic factors, and cultural differences.
A summary of the goals and challenges
An assessment of the outlook for action/progress
Appendix A: Include your community assessment from Week 3 as Appendix A.
Your paper should be 3–5 pages in length (not including the cover or reference pages). Use APA throughout.
Include 2–3 scholarly sources that are carefully selected and appropriate to the topic. References should be current—no more than four years old.
Due: Sunday, 11:59 p.m. (Pacific time)
Review the rubric for further information on how your assignment will be graded.
Before you begin, review some strategic plans to garner ideas for developing your own strategic plan.
ACL strategic plan (2018–2022) (Links to an external site.)
A strategic plan to make improvements in the network of community-based long term care and supportive services for older adults and adults with disabilities in San Francisco (Links to an external site.)
Paper/Essay Rubric 110pt
Paper/Essay Rubric 110pt
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Content
40 to >31.6 pts
The writer clearly and effectively responds to the assignment.
31.6 to >23.6 pts
The response to the assignment is generally adequate but may not be thorough.
23.6 to >0 pts
The writer does not respond to the assignment.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Focus and Detail
30 to >23.7 pts
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear and are well supported by detailed and accurate information.
23.7 to >17.7 pts
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear but are not well supported by detailed information.
17.7 to >0 pts
The topic and main ideas are not clear.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Organization
30 to >23.7 pts
The introduction is inviting, states the main topic, and provides an overview of the paper. Information is relevant and presented in a logical order. The conclusion is strong.
23.7 to >17.7 pts
The introduction states the main topic and provides an overview of the paper. A conclusion is included.
17.7 to >0 pts
There is no clear introduction, structure, or conclusion.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Mechanics and APA
10 to >7.9 pts
The assignment consistently follows current APA format and is free from errors in formatting, citation, and references. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. All sources are cited and referenced correctly.
7.9 to >5.9 pts
The assignment consistently follows current APA format with only isolated and inconsistent mistakes and/or has a few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Most sources are cited and referenced correctly.
5.9 to >0 pts
The assignment does not follow current APA format and/or has many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Many sources are cited and referenced incorrectly, or citations and references are missing.
Total Points: 110
Overview of the Community Health Issue
Considering Ventura County, which is in California, it is clearly evident that one of the most prevalent community health issues is a chronic disease, with coronary heart disease being the leading cause of death. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death and also being the leading cause of premature death in Ventura County. The main influences that contribute to a high prevalence of CHD in Ventura County include diet and lifestyle. Individuals who consume foods with high levels of salt and fat are more likely to suffer from CHD. On the other hand, individuals who are not involved in regular physical activities and who live a sedentary lifestyle are likely to be more susceptible to CHD. The lifestyle and diet of the community in Ventura County significantly contribute to their susceptibility to coronary heart disease, making CHD the leading cause of death in the area. According to Jeemon et al. (2021), coronary heart disease begins with damage or injury to the inner layers of the coronary arteries, which can occur even in early childhood in some instances. The damage to the inner parts of the coronary arteries can be caused by high cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, or diabetes, and having a sedentary lifestyle. Lifestyle and diet are the main influences on the onset and prevalence of CHD (Jeemon et al., 2021).
The main risk factors of CHD include age. According to Quertermous & Ingelsson (2016), when an individual gets older, the risk of narrowing or damaging arteries will significantly increase. On the other hand, the sex of an individual will increase their susceptibility to coronary artery disease. According to Urbich et al. (2020), men are more susceptible to coronary heart disease compared to women. However, the risk of women to CHD will increase significantly after menopause. In Ventura County, it’s evident that CHD is more prevalent among elderly people above the age of 65 years, with a higher prevalence of being witnessed in men. On the other hand, a family history of CHD also increases the susceptibility of an individual to such diseases. For instance, if a close relative of a given patient develops coronary heart disease at an early age, including immediate siblings or parents, an individual will also be susceptible to CHD (Urbich et al., 2020). Smoking is also a significant contributor to an increased risk of CHD. Second-hand smokers are also at a significantly increased risk of coronary artery disease. In Ventura County, elderly people with a history of smoking are more likely to suffer from coronary heart disease compared to individuals who have never been involved in smoking. High blood pressure is also a significant contributor to the prevalence of CHD. This is because high blood pressure can result in the hardening of an individual’s artery and resulting to the narrowing of channels in which blood flows (Quertermous & Ingelsson, 2016). Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. In communities like Ventura County, California, a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been associated with a rising prevalence of CHD. Overweight and obese physical inactivity are also significant contributors to coronary heart disease. Having a diet with high amounts of trans fats, saturated fats, sugars, and salt can also increase the risk of CHD (Urbich et al., 2020). For instance, in Ventura County, a close association between individuals who are obese and who take an unhealthy diet has also been made, which their susceptibility to coronary heart disease.
In Ventura County and across many communities in the US, there appears to be a significant knowledge gap related to the causes of CHD. Across the general population, most people are not aware of the significant contributions their lifestyle and diet will have on their susceptibility to CHD. For example, individuals who take unhealthy diets with high levels of trans fat and saturated fat, salt, and sugar will be highly susceptible to coronary heart disease. Individuals who live a sedentary lifestyle and are rarely involved in the exercise will also be highly susceptible to CHD.
Prevalence of the Issue inside and Outside the United States
Across the US, heart disease is the leading cause of death for both women and men and also individuals of different racial and ethnic groups. According to the CDC, coronary heart disease is the most prevalent form of heart disease and is responsible for at least 360 900 annually by 2019. According to the CDC, nearly 18.2 million adults above the age of 20 years struggle with coronary heart disease in the US, which represents 6.7% of the population (CDC, 2022). On the other hand, at least 20% of deaths related to coronary heart disease have been among adults who are less than 65 years old. On the other hand, on the global scale, at least 17.9 million people suffer from cardiovascular diseases, including CHD, every year, which accounts for nearly 32% of all deaths worldwide (CDC, 2022).
Potential Monetary Costs Associated With the Issue in the United States
According to the CDC, an estimated $363 billion is the estimated costs associated with heart diseases, including the loss of productivity due to illness and early death, cost of medication, and healthcare services (CDC, 2022). Heart diseases, including cardiovascular disease, consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources in the US.
Advanced practice roles and management strategies that affect change at the community level
The advanced practice roles and management strategies that can affect to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular heart disease at the community level would include health promotion activities. Health promotion activities would include community education activities through one-on-one sessions and the mass media (Hajar, 2017). By relying on health promotion, healthcare practitioners can be able to come up with effective strategies to effect change and reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular disease at the community level (Hajar, 2017).
Key community and social resources that negatively and positively affect the selected issue
The key community issues that negatively affect the prevalence of chronic heart disease and contribute to an increase in the prevalence of CHD include the lack of availability of walkways and parks that individuals in the community can tell us to exercise and the lack of accessibility to healthy food for example through a network of groceries (Jeemon et al., 2021). In contrast and availability of Walkways, parks, and gyms in a community contributes to a reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, including CHD. The availability of healthy food through an accessible network of groceries also contributes to a lower prevalence of CHD (Jeemon et al., 2021).
Changes or Enhancements in Community-Related Services
The enhancements that can be adopted in community-related services to help reduce the prevalence of CHD include the provision of nutrition and physical exercise centers across Communities that encourage people to live a better healthy lifestyle and change their eating behavior so as to avoid the onset of CHD (Hajar, 2017).
A strategic plan that would help reduce the prevalence of coronary heart disease would include three main goals:
- The introduction of a health promotion campaign targeting the community to highlight the importance of a healthy diet and physical activity in preventing CHD within a month.
- Construction of more groceries and social facilities such as gyms and walkways within a period of at least five years.
- Educating community members on the contribution that cultural practices such as preparation of food and diet choices have on contributing to the risk of CHD.
The three strategic goals consider issues related to health literacy, such as a healthy diet and physical activity, which can help prevent CHD. The strategic goals also consider socio-economic factors and propose various measures to deal with the socio-economic factors that can contribute to the high prevalence of CHD (Jeemon et al., 2021).
In summary, health promotion activities, including educating the community on taking a healthy diet and being involved in physical activity and also the construction of important social amenities such as parks and walkways, can help reduce the prevalence of CHD among patients. The introduction of strategic actions such as health promotion and social amenities in a community can help reduce the prevalence of CHD.
CDC. (2022, February 7). Heart Disease Facts | cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved March 31, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm#:%7E:text=Coronary%20Artery%20Disease,killing%20360%2C900%20people%20in%202019.&text=About%2018.2%20million%20adults%20age,have%20CAD%20(about%206.7%25).
Hajar, R. (2017). Risk factors for coronary artery disease: Historical perspectives. Heart Views, 18(3), 109. https://doi.org/10.4103/heartviews.heartviews_106_17
Jeemon, P., Harikrishnan, S., Ganapathi, S., Sivasankaran, S., Binukumar, B., Padmanabhan, S., Tandon, N., & Prabhakaran, D. (2021). Efficacy of a family-based cardiovascular risk reduction intervention in individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease in India (PROLIFIC): an open-label, single-center, cluster randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Global Health, 9(10), e1442–e1450. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(21)00319-3
Quertermous, T., & Ingelsson, E. (2016). Coronary Artery Disease and Its Risk Factors. Circulation Research, 118(1), 14–16. https://doi.org/10.1161/circresaha.115.307937
Urbich, M., Globe, G., Pantiri, K., Heisen, M., Bennison, C., Wirtz, H. S., & di Tanna, G. L. (2020). A Systematic Review of Medical Costs Associated with Heart Failure in the USA (2014–2020). PharmacoEconomics, 38(11), 1219–1236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-020-00952-0
Resources for Community Assessment
There are different resources in my community of Ventura County, California, that can help me effectively complete the community assessment using Gordon’s functional health pattern framework. This would include considering Ventura health care agency and Ventura County public health department resources. I would also explore reports related to public forums and listening sessions, assessing community health needs and various reports from focus groups. I would also rely on resources providing results for surveys and interviews of community members in Ventura County highlighting various community health needs.
Summary of Findings
Considering the different areas of Gordon’s functional health patterns framework, it is evident that the residents of Ventura County have a general good health perception and apply different important health management activities. Most of the residents in Ventura County, therefore, indicated that they comply with doctors’ advice when they are ill and always ensure that they comply with the medication regimen administered by healthcare practitioners. Most of the residents of Ventura County also highlighted that they consistently involve themselves in health promotion activities, including annual checkups and regular exercise (city of hope, 2020). The high compliance of residents of Ventura County with doctor’s advice and medical regimen can be attributed to a high health literacy of the members of the Ventura community, which can be directly attributed to the high levels of literacy among community members with a higher proportion of members of Ventura County had at least a college degree compared to the state of California and even national levels. On the other hand, considering the nutritional and metabolic functional health pattern of the community in Ventura County, it is evident that the community in Ventura adheres to a healthy dietary pattern which includes the consumption of fruit and vegetable. However, a significant proportion of the community in Ventura County does not consistently eat healthily and normally indulges in fast foods and soft drinks (VCPH, 2020). Relating to elimination, there are no challenges such as bowel movement issues, pain on urination, and other issues that were reported for most individuals in the Ventura community. Most of the community members in the Ventura community describe their elimination process as normal (VCPH, 2019). On the other hand, related to activity and exercise, at least half of the community members in Ventura County highlighted that they consistently involve themselves in physical activity at least five days a week which includes walking, jogging, and other physical activities. On the other hand, related to the cognitive and perceptual functional health pattern, there were no observable issues that were evident in the community in Ventura County, with most community members reporting adequate vision, hearing, smell, touch, taste, and perception (VCPH, 2019). However, a small proportion of the community in Ventura County struggles with cognitive issues such as memory and decision-making associated with alcoholism, drug abuse, and mental health issues (city of hope, 2020). On the other hand, related to sleep and rest, a significant proportion of the community in Ventura County highlighted that they always sleep at least 6 hours which is way lower than the recommended 7.5 hours of sleep for every adult. On the other hand, related to self-perception and self-concept, the body image, body comfort, and the perception of abilities of most community members in Ventura is positive. Most of the members of the community in Ventura County are satisfied with their work, social relationship, and family and view themselves as being successful in life to an extent. On the other hand, related to sexuality and reproductive patterns, Ventura County has relatively low cases of infant mortality, with most members of the community expressing satisfaction with sexual relationships (VCPH, 2020). On the other hand, relating to coping and stress tolerance, most individuals in Ventura County highlighted that they have the right support systems to manage stress, such as the address to counselors and other professionals. On the right support, systems to manage stress such as access to counselors and other professionals. On the other hand, related to value and belief, most members of Ventura County highlight that they view their religious beliefs as important to their life but also do not see any way their religious beliefs conflict with their health (city of hope, 2020).
Community Strength and Concern
Considering the community health assessment of Ventura County, it is therefore evident that the main strength of the community related to health includes high levels of education and health literacy in the community and high-income levels of the community compared to Statewide and national rates.
On the other hand, the central health concerns in the Ventura community include addressing the burden of chronic diseases, especially among senior citizens above 65 years of age, and reducing the impact of behavioral health issues such as mental health, alcoholism, and drug abuse.
Potential Barriers to Implementing Community Health Plans
The potential barriers that can significantly slow down the implementation of community health plans for Ventura County include bureaucracy and lack of adequate funds to support the community health plan. To address the barrier related to bureaucracy, it will be important to lobby the relevant leaders in the implementation of a community health plan. On the other hand, seeking funding from non-governmental organizations can help support community health plans focusing on Ventura County (Gengo et al., 2021).
Cityofhope. (2020, January). 2019 Community Needs Assessment. cityofhope.org.
Gengo E Silva Butcher, R. D. C., & Jones, D. A. (2021). An integrative review of comprehensive nursing assessment tools developed based on Gordon’s Eleven Functional Health Patterns. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge, 32(4), 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1111/2047-3095.12321
Ventura County Public Health. (2020). Ventura County Public Health. Retrieved March 26, 2022, from https://www.healthmattersinvc.org/
Ventura County Public Health (VPN). (2019, December). Ventura County Community Health Needs Assessment 2019.