Assignment- PHN 652- TOPIC 2- Intervention Wheel Analysis (See upload for full questions and Rubric and reading)
Intervention Wheel Analysis
The intervention wheel is a commonly used model used in public health. The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the intervention wheel and contrast it with another model used in public health. Write a 1,100 word paper, including the following:
- A description of the strengths and weaknesses of the intervention wheel.
- An example of when the intervention wheel has been used in public health.
- A brief description of another model used in public health.
- A description of how the two models are similar.
- A description of how the two models are different.
Cite two or three resources in your paper.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide.
An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations.
Public Health Models
The Intervention Wheel healthcare model is a population-based model encompassing three main levels of practice: the community, systems, and individuals or families. In addition to the levels of practice, the model provides 17 interventions for public health that contribute to quality health improvement for the public. The model was designed in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health and has been widely used across the United States. This paper will analyze the Intervention Wheel model for public health and compare the model with the Health Belief Model for public health.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Intervention Wheel Model
The intervention wheel has various strengths that focus on the public health elements. One of the strengths of the intervention wheel model is that it captures the scope and breadth of the population-based public health nursing work. The model provides a firm foundation for public health nursing practices by integrating public health research and nursing practices. The 17 interventions in the public health model cover the needs of populations described by public health nursing. Some of the interventions such as screening, surveillance, disease investigation, case management, and health teaching provide prevention and control against adverse health conditions. Other interventions include advocacies, coalition building, and collaboration on general public health improvement. The intervention wheel model is highly adopted for covering the entire scope of public health practices aimed at improving the quality of public health (Galvin et al., 2019).
Another strength of the intervention wheel is that it focuses on all disease and adverse health prevention promotions. Most of the models focus on delivering care and improving health quality in secondary and tertiary levels of disease prevention. The primary prevention interventions protect the populations against health risks, keeping the health problems away from occurring. The primary interventions reduce susceptibility and exposure to the identified health risks and are implemented before the health issue happens. In the intervention wheel, interventions such as health education, health advocacy, outreach, and social marketing, among others, provide primary prevention to the public on health quality. Secondary prevention detects and treats health problems. Some of the secondary prevention interventions in the wheel include screening, outreach, referral, and follow-up interventions, among others. The tertiary prevention interventions help in managing the existing health conditions against chronicity.
The weakness associated with the intervention wheel model is that most of the interventions are focused on the public services and not the source of the services. There are no missing interventions in the wheel, but some interventions are solely described for the public. Health education is described for education programs and strategies for the community. The wheel does not provide the empowerment required for the healthcare team and policymakers to enhance the quality and access of public health. Education to the healthcare providers is one of the key measures to enhance the expertise needed for the other interventions identified in the wheel. A qualified team of healthcare providers improves the performance of disease screening, community education, collaborative public healthcare, and healthcare advocacy. The intervention wheel does not describe a quality working environment and resources as a prerequisite for the other interventions cited in the intervention wheel model for public healthcare.
Example of Intervention Wheel Model Implementation
COVID-19 is one of the most recent public health concerns which struck the whole world, especially in Europe and the United States. Various interventions were included in the prevention and control measures against the disease in countering the health problem. In countering the disease, the system came up with policies and enforced them in preventing the incidence of the disease in the United States. Some of the policies created and implemented at the state and national level included cessation of movement, wearing of masks, and sanitization requirements. Different states also modified the existing policies on healthcare occupational licensing and inclusion of retired healthcare providers in the system to enhance prevention and control of COVID-19. Outreach and surveillance on the infection situation across the states and counties were being made to determine the levels of response and the interventions to be included. More containment methods were put in place in the areas where the infection rates were high, such as lockdowns and sensitization. Health teaching was done through numerous media outlets in sensitizing the community. Some of the health teachings were on the pathogenesis of the disease, the prevention mechanisms such as hand sanitization, avoidance of touch, avoidance of congested areas, and wearing of masks. The suspected populations established through contact tracing in establishing the affected people were screening and case findings. Counseling sessions for the affected patients or those living in anxious conditions due to the impacts of the disease and its containment measures were intensified during the heights of the pandemic (Ceulemans et al., 2020).
The Health Belief Model
The health belief model is one of the public health models used to define public healthcare processes. The model provides a framework that is important in investigating health behaviors and establishing the health beliefs that are important in improving the quality of health. The HBM focuses on the desire to avoid adverse health conditions and the personal belief in the consequences of adopting healthy or unhealthy behaviors (Costa, 2020). The theory posits that people are likely to change behaviors in establishing that some behaviors may positively increase the risk of adverse health conditions, contribute to highly severe conditions, and benefit in reducing the threat of adverse conditions and quality of life. The model also focuses on the exposure to the cues to action, self-efficacy, and ability to surpass the behavioral change barriers for positive health outcomes. This theory predicts that if a person is informed about the behavioral change benefits or adversities and views the current behaviors as those that can contribute to a chronic condition, if they are susceptible to the condition, they are likely to withdraw from the negative behaviors and embrace the benefiting behaviors. Personal confidence is important in changing personal behaviors for health and wellness.
Similarities between Intervention Wheel model and HBM
The health belief model and the intervention wheel model share various aspects of public health and design public health improvement interventions. The health belief model concentrates on individuals or families as the basis for improved and quality public health. Individual perceptions on the adversities and benefits of behavioral changes are important in boosting the person’s decision-making process. The intervention wheel model puts the core of public health and the individual level, whereby all health improvement inputs are made or propelled. The interventions provided in the Intervention Wheel model are thus directed to the individual or family level, which is the most basic in improving the health and wellness of the general community.
The two models list external influences as important in making changes. The health belief model provides the cues to action as an important contributor to behavioral change. Some of the cues to action that can be related and combined to the interventions in the intervention wheel model include access to health promotional materials, health teaching and education, community health programs, and social marketing, among others. These are common factors that can invite a person to respond towards a change of behavior for quality health. Other cues that may not be within the intervention wheel model’s list include exposure to affected people and internal factors such as bad feelings due to an adverse health condition. This indicates that the two public health models concentrate on the external factors contributing to improved public health quality, such as health education and health awareness.
The difference between the two models is that the health belief model concentrates only on individual decisions and capabilities in changing behaviors for positive health outcomes. In contrast, the intervention wheel model focuses on all levels as key contributors to health quality improvement. The health belief model focuses on personal perceptions and efficacies that can influence changes in public health. The intervention belief model focuses on the three levels, including individuals, community, and the systems as important players in the health and wellbeing of the public. This shows that the health belief model does not consider public policies in improving the quality of care. Policies and regulations are not negotiable, and thus the individuals will change the behaviors not by choice but by the law. For instance, even though a person may consider being unsusceptible to COVID-19, the government policy to initiate lockdown and wearing of masks will contribute to the change of behavior that would not change according to the HBM.
In conclusion, the intervention wheel model carries all nursing practices in whole for public health and wellbeing. It puts emphasis on the three levels including the individual or family level, community level, and systems level. This shows that responsibilities and interventions to public health are attached to every level. The 17 interventions cover all the three levels and ensures personal physical and emotional wellbeing, community awareness, and system strength in creating an effective platform for public healthcare practices and health related activities within the community. Compared to the health belief model which relies on an individual’s decision, the intervention wheel model focuses on the three levels towards quality community health and thus it is widely applicable in the public health sector.
Ceulemans, M., Verbakel, J. Y., van Calsteren, K., Eerdekens, A., Allegaert, K., & Foulon, V. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Results from an Observational Study in Primary Care in Belgium. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6766. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186766
Costa, M. F. (2020). Health belief model for coronavirus infection risk determinants. Revista de Saúde Pública, 54. https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054002494
Glavin, K., Schaffer, M. A., & Kvarme, L. G. (2019). The Public Health Intervention Wheel in Norway. Public Health Nursing, 36(6), 819-828. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12657