Assignment- PHN 652- TOPIC 1- Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (See upload for full questions and Rubric and reading)

Assignment- PHN 652- TOPIC 1- Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (See upload for full questions and Rubric and reading)


Assignment- Health Promotion and Disease Prevention- Evidence-based interventions


The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the importance of evidence-based interventions to the design of health promotion and disease prevention. In a 1,100 word paper-

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-provide detailed descriptions of disease prevention and health promotion

-as well as the role of evidence-based interventions in the success of this practice.

Refer to the assigned reading, “Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Through Population-Based Interventions, Including Action to Address Social Determinants and Health Inequity,” to assist in completing the assignment.

Include the following:

  1. A description of disease prevention.
  2. An example of an existing disease prevention model at the three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual).
  3. An analysis of the benefits and concerns with utilizing this model.
  4. A description of health promotion.
  5. An example of an existing health promotion model at the three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual).
  6. An analysis of the benefits and concerns with utilizing this model.
  7. A discussion of the role evidence-based practice plays in the success of disease prevention and health promotion.
  8. A discussion of the role of health teaching in disease prevention and health promotion.

Cite the assigned reading as a source plus cite two or three additional resources in your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA 7TH EDITION

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.







Disease Prevention

            Disease prevention is defined as targeted, population-based, or/and individual-based interventions which aim at reducing disease burden and risk factors associated with the disease. The interventions can be primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary interventions are those actions whose goal is to prevent the manifestation of diseases. Example of such interventions includes vaccinations and immunizations. Secondary interventions include actions to deal with an early diagnosis to improve disease outcomes, for example, evidence-based screening programs and preventive drug therapies. Tertiary interventions include actions that aim at improving the quality of health by limiting complications and ensuring restoration of normal functioning among the patients. They are normally provided after disease onset. Interventions at this level include providing treatments and rehabilitation services (World Health Organization, 2021).

Disease Prevention Model at the Three Levels of Practice: Nightingale’s Theory of Environment

Nightingale’s theory of environment model suggests that changing the environment of patients can assist in the recovery process. According to the model, poor environmental conditions are related to increased prevalence of diseases and poor health, while a good environment is associated with improved health. This model can be utilized at various levels, including personal, community, and systems. The model emphasizes five environmental factors, including pure water and freshwater, light, effective drainage, and cleanliness. Failure to adequately provide the factors leads to illnesses or lack of health, while if provided adequately, the body can be able to heal (Gilbert, 2020).


Benefits of Using the Model

Due to its simplicity, Nightingale’s Theory of Environment is easily applicable in public health nursing today. It can be used in various settings such as the hospital’s intensive care unit, workplace, home, and community because of its clarity and simplicity. The model promotes patient-centered care instead of a one-size-fits-all approach; care providers have to assess the patient/community environment to make the necessary adjustment in their environment rather than just implementing pre-defined interventions. The model encourages the patients and communities to be actively involved in maintaining a supportive environment for their well-being (Gilbert, 2020).

Concerns about using the Model

The model holds that diseases are primarily caused by unclean/dirty or poorly ventilated environment, which has been shown not to be true, as diseases caused be caused by other conditions other than the dirty environment, as shown by Pasteur and his bacteriology work. The theory overemphasizes environmental measures, which, although beneficial in the prevention, effectiveness is limited since environmental factors cause not all diseases (Gilbert, 2020).

Description of Health Promotion.

Through health literacy and multisectoral action, health promotion empowers communities and individuals in society to gain control of their health and its determinants by encouraging the adoption of healthy practices. People can gain more control over their health and future by participating in health promotion. It includes social and environmental interventions that are meant to improve and protect health and quality of life by educating the communities on how to avoid the root causes of sickness rather than just providing treatment and curing diseases. This method entails efforts for both the general public and those at increased risk of poor health outcomes. Health promotion provides education on several risk factors, including obesity, use of tobacco, healthy diet, mental health, physical inactivity, drugs and alcohol abuse, prevention of injuries, and sexual health.  The primary goal of health promotion is to create awareness about the risk factors for diseases and how the communities can protect themselves from such risks. It includes measures for both primary and secondary illness prevention (World Health Organization, 2021).

Existing Health Promotion model: Pender’s Health Promotion Model

Nola J. Pender developed the model in 1982. The model defines health as not just a state of disease absence but a positive dynamic state. The model focuses on the multi-dimension nature of individuals as they relate with the environment to pursue health. The model addresses three main areas: individual qualities and experiences, affect and cognitions that are behavior specific, and behavioral outcomes. According to Pender’s health promotion model, individuals possess unique personal experiences and features that determine their actions. These unique experiences and features relating to knowledge and affect significantly influence an individual’s motivation, which then influences their actions related to health. Nursing interventions can thus be used to change the variables to promote healthy behaviors. The goal of any health promotion model is to ensure the development of is behaviors that are health promoting, which is the desired behavioral outcome. The model can be applied at the individual, community, and system level to understand the existing behaviors that influence the population’s health and thus develop suitable actions that influence a change in the behavior of the target population (Habibzadeh et al., 2021).


Benefits of using Pender’s Health Promotion Model

The model serves as a tool that nurses can use to achieve optimum health promotion. The model requires care providers to analyze individual characteristics and experiences that can drive individuals to act in certain ways. By understanding the causes of such unhealthy life practices, care providers can effectively develop interventions that will cause a behavioral change, thus promoting health. The model can be used to create patient-centered approaches or can be used to study and develop health promotion interventions for the whole community (Habibzadeh et al., 2021).

Concerns; Pender’s Health Promotion Model

When using the model, one of the concerns is that it comprises several concepts that can be confusing for the care providers to analyze and apply in real-life situations. The model is also criticized for identifying perceptual and cognitive factors as major health influencers, while situational, interpersonal, and environmental factors are only considered important to the extent to which they modify cognitive and perceptual factors (Habibzadeh et al., 2021).

Role Evidence-based Practice plays in the Success of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

In health promotion and disease prevention, evidence-based practice informs the decision-making practice to select specific interventions backed by evidence from research and practice, which have been shown to be effective. Evidence-based practice involves the integration of the best existing evidence to practice. In public health, the concept of evidence-based public health is rapidly gaining popularity. Evidence-based practice is being applied in disease prevention and health promotion to inform the selection of suitable interventions based on the existing evidence about their success and the community they are being implemented in (Lhachimi et al., 2016).

Role of Health Teaching in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

Health teaching is a strategy in the implementation of disease prevention and health promotion programs. Health teaching plays a crucial role in providing a learning experience to the target population. It equips them with information on specific health subjects, including the advantages and risks they encounter, as well as tools to build capacity and support behavior change in an appropriate setting. This assists in ensuring that populations can make informed decisions concerning their health. Through health, education individuals are equipped with the right health-related information and the freedom to make informed decisions related to their health (Lhachimi et al., 2016).



Gilbert, H. A. (2020). Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory and its influence on contemporary infection control. Collegian27(6), 626-633.

Habibzadeh, H., Shariati, A., Mohammadi, F., & Babayi, S. (2021). The effect of educational intervention based on Pender’s health promotion model on quality of life and health promotion in patients with heart failure: an experimental study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders21(1), 1-13.

Lhachimi, S. K., Bala, M. M., & Vanagas, G. (2016). Evidence-based public health.

World Health Organization, (2021) Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity Retrieved from: