Qualitative Data Collection-Topic 7 DQ 1 -Response 1
QUESTION- Describe three methods for qualitative data collection and discuss an example of when each method would be used.
Classmate(Chayah’s) Response -There are multiple methods that researchers use to collect data during a qualitative study. One is research interviews. These can be structured, semi structured or unstructured. A structured interview is when a researcher basically reads a questionnaire to a participant. The questions are written ahead of time and the format stuck to as much as possible to have the process be as similar as process for participants (Gill et al., 2008). An unstructured interview may begin with an open-ended question and the questions may change depending on participants answers (Gill et al., 2008). A semi structed interview is a mixture of predetermined questions to give direction to the areas the researcher wants to gather data in and has allowance to go into different ideas if that’s where the interview goes. It allows the input of the participant which may provide additional information not originally in the questions (Gill et al., 2008).
The purpose of using a research interview when gathering qualitative data is that it can provide understanding of participants views, beliefs, deeper thoughts, and opinions that may dictate their actions. Interviews can be used when there is little known information about a topic and can provide privacy about topics that someone may not be open about in a group setting (Gill et al., 2008). Examples could be an instructed interview asking a participant how do you feel about masking? A structed interview could be having a questionnaire and going through a list of questions asking specifically things like do you wear a mask at the grocery store? Do you wear a mask when walking down the street? Both of these examples would gain data about masking but one would potentially provide lots of in-depth data needing to be organized and the other would have yes and no responses with succinct data cc masks and behavior.
Another method to gather qualitative data would be focus groups. A focus group is a group discussion of a topic that is guided by a moderator. It allows the gathering of data from multiple persons at a time (Gill et al., 2008). A focus group can be stand alone or part of a mixed method approach. The mixture of persons in the group affects results which including things like age and gender. Groups can be strangers or people that have a known shared experience. Questions may be all premeditated or may also allow for a divergence of questions based on response (Gill et al., 2008). A best practice size may be 6-8 participants but may be smaller or larger depending on circumstance. A too small group could have limited input and discussion but a large group risk can be difficult to manage and more dominant personalities may monopolize speaking time. Moderating taking skill in order to keep a discussion on the main topic without leading participants down a preconceived notion of the moderators, they must keep speaking roles balances and maintain a group that is allowing all to speak (Gill et al., 2008). Using the mask example from above a focus group could be created from parents at a school to gather data on individual beliefs and also, they want as a group. Parents may have a variety of opinions and they may as a group show what the population of that school is thinking, believing, and acting upon in terms of masking.
Another method to gather data would be ethnography. Ethnography collects data through participant observation and analyzes certain people groups or cultures. A researcher seeks to learn through another population (Grand Canyon University [GCU], 2016). The researcher is engaged to find out data about experiences based on different aspects of this different people group. The researcher immerses in the other culture. Many times, this kind of data collecting takes a long amount of time (GCU, 2016). Keeping with the mask example an expatriate living in Asia may evaluate how they feel and act about masks based on their cultural lenses and a previous more common use of masking when ill.
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E., Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British Dental Journal 204, 291–295. https://doi.org/10.1038/bdj.2008.192
Grand Canyon University. (Ed.). (2016). GCU doctoral research: Quantitative and qualitative research concepts.
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Methods of Qualitative Data Collection
Hello, thank you for the opportunity to contribute to the discussion. I appreciate your contributions and agree with your response. I will only add a few views to the post. All the three methods that you have discussed emphasize the relevance towards the development of research and show how important they are for researchers. They all show their uniqueness based on the methodologies and approaches moderators and researchers apply to their work. Thus appropriateness of the data collection method will determine the suitability of findings and the results of the study. Therefore, it is important to carry out adequate research before using any data collection method.
Research interviews help gather in-depth and richer data that has various views and perceptions from those who have experienced a similar situation. In addition, the interviewer can articulate and feel the interviewee’s expressions and reactions through their responses, thus assisting in collecting authentic data on the little-known topic. Normally, the interview is conducted one-on-one, allowing participants to express their feelings on certain beliefs and views without being judged (Paradis et al., 2016).
Focus group discussions help in solving a social occurrence. This saves time and repetition since the researchers can compare the similarities and differences of participants’ views towards a similar experience. In most times, the number of participants in a group depends with the research questions in a specific circumstance, therefore, it is vital to ensure that the group size is not too small or large as this will have an impact on the outcome of the study. Health researchers can use this method in gathering information regarding experience on medical interventions based on patients’ experiences (Hammarberg et al., 2016). Ethnography requires researchers to be more patient as it can involve too much than expected on the population’s lifestyle and culture, though it is an effective method of understanding different characters in a study to understand a certain phenomenon in a societal set-up.
Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., & de Lacey, S. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human reproduction, 31(3), 498-501. https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article/31/3/498/2384737?login=true
Paradis, E., O’Brien, B., Nimmon, L., Bandiera, G., & Martimianakis, M. A. (2016). Design: Selection of data collection methods. Journal of graduate medical education, 8(2), 263-264. https://meridian.allenpress.com/jgme/article/8/2/263/34418/Design-Selection-of-Data-Collection-Methods