Nursing Theory, APA

Nursing Theory, APA


Please use  the Order Rough Draft Paper to complete this assignment

With the rough draft of your nursing comparison paper due this week, a focused review of the basics of APA Style is important. After you have reviewed the APA guidelines, share something you learned with your peers. Also, attach examples from your rough draft that include both an in-text citation you used when you were paraphrasing and one you used when you were directly quoting. In addition, attach the reference page from your rough draft so that you can review each other’s work and provide peer-to-peer feedback.


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Title Page Information Appears at the Top Half of the Page (Replace this with your title)


Your Name Here

University Name

Course Number: Course Name

Instructor’s Name

Due Date



The abstract should be a single paragraph in block format (without paragraph indentation). Abstracts should not exceed 250 words maximum. Include an abstract only if your instructor or assignment specifically states an abstract is required. This is because a student paper is typically short and not intended for publication.

Keywords: formatting, style, APA 7th edition


Title of Paper Here

The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of a paper formatted to the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th edition standards. Included herein are formatting tips for document layout, general writing tips, and style considerations. Very basic writing fundamentals are included, covering topics from how to start a writing project to paragraph formulation and proofreading.

The first section of the paper is called the introduction, yet the paper does not have a heading that is labeled introduction. Instead, the title of the paper should be typed at the top of the first page (be sure to center the title, but put it in bold). In this section, you would start with an introductory paragraph and thesis statement. A well-written essay is similar to a trip. The introduction section is the planning stage where you determine the place, time, and method of travel. You might also include the order of the trip and stages of travel.

Title Page

The title page of this paper is properly formatted to APA 7th edition standards. It includes all necessary information, identifying the title of the paper, the author (student), and the university, course number and title, instructor, and due date (APA, 2020). Do not be tempted to dress up the paper by using larger typeface or boldface for emphasis, or by using borders on your title page. No artwork is permitted. Please do not use report covers, plastic binders, or envelopes to present your paper. A single staple in the top left corner is sufficient.


Appearance Elements of Formatting

The typeface you are reading is double-spaced with extra spaces before and after paragraphs removed, and the font is 12-point Times New Roman. 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 11-point Georgia, and 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode are also acceptable in APA 7th edition formatting (APA, 2020). Be sure you use the same font throughout the text of the paper. Ask your instructor if a specific font is required. Instructors are wise to the tricks of using larger type fonts (or smaller ones) and spacing gimmicks in order to meet the minimum or maximum page requirements for assignments. Do not use tricks to compensate for too little or too much writing in your assignments.

Other appearance elements are margins, page numbering, and indenting. One-inch margins are required in APA style papers. The header for a student paper only includes a page number in the upper-right corner of the page (Paul et al., 2020, Chapter 4). Speak with your instructors regarding if a running head is required for an assignment. If a running head is required, it should be an abbreviated version of the title, not to exceed 50 characters including letters, punctuation, and spaces, and should be placed flush to the left on the same line as the page number (APA, 2020).  There is exactly one space after each punctuation mark, except for periods at the end of a sentence, after which there are two spaces. The final consideration discussed related to appearance is paragraph indenting. Paragraphs are indented, 5 to 7 spaces or ½ inch.


Use APA formatted headings and subheadings to organize the sections of your paper and to help your reader transition from section to section. See section 2.27 and 2.28 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) for more information on heading levels. A suggestion is to use headings that are in the order of the assignment and evaluation criteria or rubric so your instructor can easily see you have fulfilled each part of the assignment’s content requirements.


There are five levels of heading in APA Style. Level 1 is the highest or main level of heading, Level 2 is a subheading of Level 1, Level 3 is a subheading of Level 2, and so on through Levels 4 and 5. The first level of subheadings is formatted flush left, boldface, uppercase, and lowercase lettering (West Coast University, 2021).


Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the authors and dates of the sources, even if the idea presented is not taken word for word. The full source citation will appear on the references page. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, such as the narrative of the paper, the year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the authors, for example, Stevens and Duque, (2019). When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons, for example (Mandernach et al., 2016; APA, 2020, p. 263).

When citing a source with one or two authors, make sure to cite the author’s or both author’s names every time the source is referenced. When a source has three or more authors, only the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” is used in the in-text citation unless doing so could create confusion (Mandernach et al., 2016).

When a direct quotation is used, include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. A longer quote of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) in block format with each line indented ½ inch from the left margin. See Chapter 8 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) for more information on in-text citations.

Writing Tips

Good writing demands attention to style considerations, including language, grammar, and usage. Your message is lost on the reader if your paper includes errors in word choice, grammar, and usage that interrupt the flow of your writing. It is important to present yourself, your ideas and research as professionally as possible. See Chapter 4 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition) for more information on writing style and grammar.


Always end with a conclusion where you summarize your paper and repeat the primary points. Remember that a well-written essay is like planning a trip. The introduction is the planning stage; the body is the journey. The conclusion allows the opportunity to reflect on where the journey has taken you. This is similar to reviewing the pictures you took on your trip and remembering the important places and experiences.



Entries are organized alphabetically and formatted with a hanging indention. Include only the sources you cited in the text of your paper.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Mandernach, B., Zafonte, M., & Taylor, C. (2016). Instructional strategies to improve college students’ APA Style writing. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 27(3), 407-412.

Paul, I., Ruegg, R., de Boer, M., Araki, N., & Agnello, M. F. (2020). The concise APA handbook: APA 7th edition: Vol. APA 7th edition. Information Age Publishing.

Stevens, J. R., & Duque, J. F. (2019). Order matters: Alphabetizing in-text citations biases citation rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26(3), 1020–1026.

West Coast University. (2021, March 22). APA help (7th edition).






APA Style

American Psychological Association style is a widely used academic writing format by many fields of studies. It helps organize the basics of writing concepts to enable the reader to analyze, examine and internalize the information being portrayed in the research with ease. This review focuses on the basics of APA style and its importance in comparing grand theory and middle-range theory that I was assigned.

Lessons Learnt

The APA styles have enhanced my writing skills, especially in structuring sentences. For instance, I have constructed grammatically correct sentences with good punctuations that improve the excellent flow of information through my entire research work, thus providing good clarity and easy navigation between the sentences. APA formatting has also helped me focus on scholarly sources for good quality ideas that help me understand the scope of my study and find the appropriate research guidelines to apply to enhance good performance in my projects.

The APA formatting has helped me derive critical ideas that can be used to write quality academic studies. There are ways of paraphrasing information from original scholarly studies. Based on the research paper I was working on, an example is in the first paragraph of the introduction. I rephrased the statement, ‘grand theories are broad and essential in organizing knowledge for studies, thus applicable in nursing practice (Hjørland, 2017).’

Another form of generating ideas from a scholarly article using the APA style is through direct quoting and ensuring that you cite the scholars to help the reader or professor identify that the information is secondary and not your personal information. For example, in the major concepts, assumptions, and relationships category on Patricia’s Novice to Expert theory. I directly quoted the words of the author: ‘Novice nurses can acquire skills and knowledge at the beginner level and can complete treatment requirements and assigned orders through the help of experienced nurses (Ozdemir, 2019).’


Attached are references from the draft copy

Hjørland, B. (2017). Theories are knowledge organizing systems (KOS). KO KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION, 42(2), 113-128.

Khademian, Z., Ara, F. K., & Gholamzadeh, S. (2020). The effect of self care education based on orem’s nursing theory on quality of life and self-efficacy in patients with hypertension: a quasi-experimental study. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 8(2), 140.

McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2017). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). LWW.

Ozdemir, N. G. (2019). The development of nurses’ individualized care perceptions and practices: Benner’s novice to expert model perspective. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 12(2), 1279-1285.’_Individualized_Care_Perceptions_and_Practices_Benner’s_Novice_to_Expert_Model_Perspective/links/5d72b3d44585151ee4a14deb/The-Development-of-Nurses-Individualized-Care-Perceptions-and-Practices-Benners-Novice-to-Expert-Model-Perspective.pdf