NURS 6521 Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders and Opioids

NURS 6521 Neurologic and Musculoskeletal Disorders and Opioids

Assignment: Decision Tree for Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders

For your Assignment, your Instructor will assign you one of the decision tree interactive media pieces provided in the Resources. As you examine the patient case studies in this module’s Resources, consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting symptoms of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.

To Prepare
• Review the interactive media piece assigned by your Instructor.
• Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of the disorder presented in the interactive media piece.
• Consider how you might assess and treat patients presenting with the symptoms of the patient case study you were assigned.
• You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this patient. Reflect on potential co-morbid physical as well as patient factors that might impact the patient’s diagnosis and treatment.
By Day 7 of Week 8

Write a 1- to 2-page summary paper that addresses the following:

  • Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented.
  • Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources.
  • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decision in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples.

Alzheimer’s Disease
76-year-old Iranian Male

BACKGROUND
Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal.
According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of “amusement” and “ridicule.”
Over the course of the past two years, the family has noticed that Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things. His son also reports that sometimes he has difficult “finding the right words” in a conversation and then will shift to an entirely different line of conversation.

SUBJECTIVE
During the clinical interview, Mr. Akkad is pleasant, cooperative and seems to enjoy speaking with you. You notice some confabulation during various aspects of memory testing, so you perform a Mini-Mental State Exam. Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall. The score suggests moderate dementia.

 

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MENTAL STATUS EXAM
Mr. Akkad is 76 year old Iranian male who is cooperative with today’s clinical interview. His eye contact is poor. Speech is clear, coherent, but tangential at times. He makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tic. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect however is restricted. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. He is alert and oriented to person, partially oriented to place, but is disoriented to time and event [he reports that he thought he was coming to lunch but “wound up here”- referring to your office, at which point he begins to laugh]. Insight and judgment are impaired. Impulse control is also impaired as evidenced by Mr. Akkad’s standing up during the clinical interview and walking towards the door. When you asked where he was going, he stated that he did not know. Mr. Akkad denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.
Diagnosis: Major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (presumptive)

RESOURCES
§ Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (2002). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Decision Point One
Select what you should do:

Begin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks

: Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME

Begin Razadyne (galantamine) 4 mg orally BID

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 11, “Basic Principles of Neuropharmacology” (pp. 67–71)
  • Chapter 12, “Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System” (pp. 72–81)
  • Chapter 12, “Muscarinic Agonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors” (pp. 82–89)
  • Chapter 14, “Muscarinic Antagonists” (pp. 90-98)
  • Chapter 15, “Adrenergic Agonists” (pp. 99–107)
  • Chapter 16, “Adrenergic Antagonists” (pp. 108–119)
  • Chapter 17, “Indirect-Acting Antiadrenergic Agents” (pp. 120–124)
  • Chapter 18, “Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology” (pp. 125–126)
  • Chapter 19, “Drugs for Parkinson Disease” (pp. 127–142)
  • Chapter 20, “Drugs for Alzheimer Disease” (pp. 159–166)
  • Chapter 21, “Drugs for Seizure Disorders” (pp. 150–170)
  • Chapter 22, “Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity” (pp. 171–178)
  • Chapter 24, “Opioid Analgesics, Opioid Antagonists, and Nonopioid Centrally Acting Analgesics” (pp. 183–194)
  • Chapter 59, “Drug Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis” (pp. 513–527)
  • Chapter 60, “Drug Therapy of Gout” (pp. 528–536)
  • Chapter 61, “Drugs Affecting Calcium Levels and Bone Mineralization” (pp. 537–556)

American Academy of Family Physicians. (2019). Dementia. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/topicModules/viewTopicModule.htm?topicModuleId=5

This website provides information relating to the diagnosis, treatment, and patient education of dementia. It also presents information on complications and special cases of dementia.

Linn, B. S., Mahvan, T., Smith, B. E. Y., Oung, A. B., Aschenbrenner, H., & Berg, J. M. (2020). Tips and tools for safe opioid prescribing: This review–with tables summarizing opioid options, dosing considerations, and recommendations for tapering–will help you provide rigorous Tx for noncancer pain while ensuring patient safety. Journal of Family Practice, 69(6), 280–292.

 

Rubric Detail

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Name: NURS_6521_Week8_Assignment_Rubric

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• List View
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented. Be specific. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)
The response accurately and thoroughly summarizes in detail the patient case study assigned, including specific and complete details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
The response accurately summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented, or is missing.
Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. 23 (23%) – 25 (25%)
The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes specific and relevant outside reference examples that fully support the explanation provided. 20 (20%) – 22 (22%)
The response accurately explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes relevant outside reference examples that lend support for the explanation provided that are accurate. 18 (18%) – 19 (19%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes inaccurate or vague outside reference examples that may or may not lend support for the explanation provided or are misaligned to the explanation provided. 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature, or is missing.

The response includes inaccurate and vague outside reference examples that do not lend support for the explanation provided, or is missing.
What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)
The response accurately and thorough explains in detail what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommend for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes specific and relevant outside reference examples that fully support the explanation provided. 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
The response accurately explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes relevant outside reference examples that lend support for the explanation provided that are accurate. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes inaccurate or vague outside reference examples that may or may not lend support for the explanation provided or are misaligned to the explanation provided. 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned, or is missing.

The response includes inaccurate and vague outside reference examples that do not lend support for the explanation provided, or is missing.
Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides specific, accurate, and relevant examples that fully support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise. 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)
The response accurately explains any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides accurate examples that support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides inaccurate or vague examples that may or may not support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise. 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)
vaguely explains in detail any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise, or is missing.

The response provides inaccurate and vague examples that do not support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise, or is missing.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%)
Contains several (3–4) APA format errors 0 (0%) – 3 (3%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors
Total Points: 100
Name: NURS_6521_Week8_Assignment_Rubric

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