NURS 6501 Week 2 Case Study Assignment Example

A 42-year-old female presents to the clinic with chief complaint of increased fatigue and joint pain worsening over the last few weeks.  Her past medical history includes similar episodes with a prior ESR of 56 mm/hr and a negative ANA.  She reports that she has had some episodes of chills but hasn’t taken her temperature.  The patient reports that she takes ibuprofen for the pain which partially relieves her symptoms.  The pain is sometimes worse in the morning but also occurs throughout the day.  Her blood pressure is 124/78, heart rate 74, temperature 100 F.


Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders are common among the population. Healthcare providers utilize assessment data to develop accurate diagnoses and treatment plans to promote recovery and optimal functioning. Therefore, this paper analyzes a case study of a 42-year-old female who presents to the clinic with a chief complaint of increased fatigue and joint pain worsening over the last few weeks. She has similar episodes of the complaints with elevated ESR and negative ANA. The paper examines why the patient presented to the facility with the symptoms, genes involved in the process, and immunosuppression and its effect on the body systems.

Why the Patient Presented the Symptoms Described

The client presented to the hospital with a chief complaint of fatigue and joint pain worsening over the last few weeks. She also reports a history of the problem, elevated ESR, negative ANA, and some chills episodes. The elevated ESR levels signify the presence of an inflammatory and autoimmune disease. The negative ANA rules out most of autoimmune disorders. Inflammatory and autoimmune processes produce symptoms such as joint pain. Fatigue develops from increased metabolic demands from the inflammatory processes, which the body cannot meet. The physiological reaction to the inflammatory processes also results in fatigue and chills (Tian et al., 2020). Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is effective for inflammatory disorders. It reduces inflammation, hence, symptom relief when taken by the patient.

Genes that May be Associated with the Development of the Disease

Genes might be associated with the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. People with a family history of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases are at risk of developing the conditions due to genetic and environmental interactions. Genes associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases influence mechanisms such as type I interferon, antigen presentation, NF-kB signaling, and Toll-like receptor functions seen in inflammatory processes. Genetic variations in different loci also induce protein modifications, autoimmunity, and loss of tolerance. Genes such as the HLA-DRB1 have been associated with the development of autoimmune disorders that include Sjogren’s syndrome and Systemic Lupus Erythematous. Polymorphisms in GABRP genes also cause inflammatory processes and autoimmune disease susceptibility. Genetic factors also influence disease phenotypes as seen from the relationship between ATG5 SNPs and renal manifestations in patients with inflammatory and autoimmune disorders (Lee et al., 2020; Surace & Hedrich, 2019). Genes such as HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1 have been linked with the development of lupus while HLA-DRB1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

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Process of Immunosuppression and Effect on Body Systems

Immunosuppression is the reduced efficacy or responsiveness of the immune system to threats. Immunosuppression develops from causes such as diseases, medications, exposure to radiation, or having conditions that include cancer and HIV. Immunosuppression can also be induced in cases such as organ transplants to prevent or lower the risk of organ transplant rejection. Immunosuppression has considerable effects on the body’s systems. Firstly, it predisposes patients to opportunistic infections. The decrease in the body’s defense mechanisms results in an increased risk of infections. Immunosuppression also causes poor healing. The weakened immunity makes it difficult for the body to recover from infections and injuries (McCance et al., 2019). Lastly, immunosuppression increases the risk of expression of genes that cause diseases such as cancer.


In summary, the client’s symptoms are attributed to inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Genes are associated with the development of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Immunosuppression develops from factors that lower the body’s immune system. The effects of immunosuppression on the body systems include infections, delayed healing, and activation of some diseases.



Lee, K. H., Ahn, B. S., Cha, D., Jang, W. W., Choi, E., Park, S., Park, J. H., Oh, J., Jung, D. E., Park, H., Park, J. H., Suh, Y., Jin, D., Lee, S., Jang, Y.-H., Yoon, T., Park, M.-K., Seong, Y., Pyo, J., … Kronbichler, A. (2020). Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by animal studies using gene modulation: A comprehensive review. Autoimmunity Reviews, 19(3), 102469.

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2019). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Elsevier.

Surace, A. E. A., & Hedrich, C. M. (2019). The Role of Epigenetics in Autoimmune/Inflammatory Disease. Frontiers in Immunology, 10.

Tian, J., Casella, G., Zhang, Y., Rostami, A., & Li, X. (2020). Potential roles of extracellular vesicles in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune diseases. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(4), 620–632.