Disease Analysis Paper
For this assignment, you will select a disease of your choice ( YOU CAN CHOOSE) and conduct a detailed analysis of that disease, exploring it from a balanced traditional and alternative health perspective.
Begin by searching the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website Diseases and Conditions Index (https://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/az/a.html ) to choose a disease or condition of interest to you.
Next, review the website for Healthy People 2020 (https://health.gov/healthypeople) for information related to the disease or the disease category (e.g., mental health for ADHD).
In your paper, discuss the following:
Prominent aspects of this disease
Current data and statistics related to the disease
Health disparities related to the disease
Prevention strategies including complementary and alternative health therapies
Contemporary research and clinical studies related to the disease
An analysis of the pathophysiologic effects of stress related to the disease
Evidence-based stress management interventions that might help with prevention or cure
The paper should be between 3–4 pages.
Incorporate at least three scholarly sources within the paper. Sources should be no more than three years old.
Use proper APA format to cite and reference sources.
Review the rubric for further information on how your assignment will be graded.
Due: Sunday, 11:59 p.m. (Pacific time)
NURS_561_DE – Paper/Essay Rubric
NURS_561_DE – Paper/Essay Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Content
40 to >31.6 pts
The writer clearly and effectively responds to the assignment.
31.6 to >23.6 pts
The response to the assignment is generally adequate but may not be thorough.
23.6 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The writer does not respond to the assignment.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Focus and Detail
30 to >23.7 pts
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear and are well supported by detailed and accurate information.
23.7 to >17.7 pts
There is one clear, well-focused topic. Main ideas are clear but are not well supported by detailed information.
17.7 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The topic and main ideas are not clear.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Organization
20 to >15.8 pts
The introduction is inviting, states the main topic, and provides an overview of the paper. Information is relevant and presented in a logical order. The conclusion is strong.
15.8 to >11.8 pts
The introduction states the main topic and provides an overview of the paper. A conclusion is included.
11.8 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
There is no clear introduction, structure, or conclusion.
This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Mechanics and APA
10 to >7.9 pts
The assignment consistently follows current APA format and is free from errors in formatting, citation, and references. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. All sources are cited and referenced correctly.
7.9 to >5.9 pts
The assignment consistently follows current APA format with only isolated and inconsistent mistakes and/or has a few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Most sources are cited and referenced correctly.
5.9 to >0 pts
Not Meeting Expectations
The assignment does not follow current APA format and/or has many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Many sources are cited and referenced incorrectly, or citations and references are missing.
Total Points: 100
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Depression which is also referred to as major depressive disorder is a common but quite severe mood disorder that results from a persistent feeling of loss of interest or sadness (Wang et al., 2017). Depression affects how an individual feels and can have a significant effect on behavior and, in turn, lead to a variety of physical and emotional problems. Depression can lead to a variety of physical and emotional problems. Depressed individuals might experience a lot of trouble in going through their day-to-day activities and can have the feeling that life is not worth living many times. Contrary to some prevailing beliefs, depression is not a form of weakness but is a clinical illness that may require long-term treatment. The general symptoms of depression normally include irritability, frustration, and significant angry outbursts, even over small matters (Alkadhi, 2019). Depression can also result in a constant feeling of sadness, hopelessness, and emptiness. Depression can also cause a loss of pleasure and interest in normal activities such as hobbies, sports, and sex. Depression can also cause consistent occurring in sleep disturbances such as sleeping too much and insomnia, while it can also contribute to a general lack of energy and tiredness which will make patients require an extra effort for even small tasks. Depression can also lead to reduced appetite and weight loss in some patients and can also contribute to an increased appetite and significant weight gain among other patients (Alkadhi, 2019). Depression can also contribute to restless agitation and anxiety. Depression is also a significant contributor to both feeling worthless, self-blame, and fixating on past failures. Depression is also a significant contributor to lack of concentration, trouble thinking, and making decisions and can also affect how one remembers things. Depression can also contribute to significant physical problems such as headaches or back pain and can also contribute to recurrent or frequent thoughts of suicide and suicide attempts (de Menezes Galvão et al., 2021).
The main causes of depression include biological differences, hormones, brain chemistry, and inherited traits. Relating to biological differences, people with depression appear to have significant physical changes in their brain, which increases their susceptibility to depression (de Menezes Galvão et al., 2021). On the other hand, hormones can also contribute to the onset of depression, with the changes in the body’s balance of hormones being involved in the triggering of depression. For example, the onset of postpartum depression can be attributed to hormones. On the other hand, depression can also result from a malfunction of brain chemistry. Scholarly research has clearly highlighted that a change in the function of neurotransmitters and how different neurotransmitters interact with each other can have a significant impact on the onset of depression. Finally, inherited traits can have a significant impact on depression in that depression can be more common among individuals who are blood relatives (Wang et al., 2017).
Current Data and Statistics Related To the Disease
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), by the end of 2020, it was estimated that at least 21 million adults over the age of 18 had experienced at least one major depressive disorder episode. This represents 8.4% of the total adult population of the US having experienced a major depressive disorder episode by 2020. According to the NIMH, the prevalence of major depressive disorder was also higher among females compared to males, which represented a 10.5% compared to a 6.2% prevalence rate (NIMH, 2021). Statistics also indicate that the prevalence of major depressive disorder was higher among individuals between 18 to 25 years old, which represented at least 17% of all Young adults in the US experiencing depression. The prevalence of major depressive disorder was also high among individuals from multiple races, which included a 15.9% prevalence rate (NIMH, 2021).
Health Disparities Related To Depression
Considering the prevalence statistics of depression across the US, clear disparities can be observed in the prevalence of depression across different groups of people and ethnic groups. Across the US, there is a significantly higher prevalence of depression among women compared to men. However, this disparity is attributed to the fact that men are less likely to seek treatment for depression due to the stigma associated with the disease (NIMH, 2021). Across the United States, young adults between the ages of 18 and 25 are also disproportionately affected by depression, while individuals who identify themselves as being from mixed races are also likely to experience higher rates of depression compared to the regular population. Minority populations, such as individuals from the LGBTQ community, also experience disproportionately higher rates of depression compared to other groups (NIMH, 2021).
Prevention Strategies Including Complementary and Alternative Health Therapies
Over the years, scholars have identified different lifestyle modifying behavior as being effective preventative measures against depression. The consumption of a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising regularly can go a long way in helping to prevent depression. There are different forms of complementary and alternative health therapies that have been shown to help mitigate the effects of depression, including herbal supplements, massage therapy, meditation, and yoga (Haller et al., 2019). Meditation and yoga can help depressed individuals to relax, which can help mitigate the effects of depression. On the other hand, massage therapy can play a significant role in helping are depressed individuals relax and improve their mental, physical and emotional well-being. Finally, herbal supplements can help to moderate the effects of depression (Haller et al., 2019).
Contemporary Research and Clinical Studies Related To the Disease
Contemporary research studies have focused on specific alternative methods of the treatment of depression which include music therapy and guided imagery. According to Haller et al. (2019), guided imagery helps individuals picture peaceful mental images, which can help ease stress for the individual. On the other hand, music therapy is an effective non-drug approach to help mitigate the symptoms of depression which include anxiety, fear, grief, and stress (Haller et al., 2019).
Pathophysiologic Effects of Stress-Related To the Disease
The pathophysiologic effects of stress might include anxiety which can contribute to headaches and substantially contribute to overeating and undereating. On the other hand, stress can also contribute to muscle tension and pain, which can significantly contribute to restlessness and angry outbursts. Strength can also result in chest pain and fatigue, which can make an individual feel overwhelmed and lack motivation or focus (Haller et al., 2019).
Evidence-Based Stress Management Interventions
Evidence-based stress management interventions among patients suffering from depression include taking a healthy diet, having sufficient sleep, and exercising regularly. Being involved in psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy can also help an individual with depression handle stress effectively. Alternative treatments such as music therapy, guided imagery, massage therapy, meditation and yoga, and herbal supplements can also help to mitigate the effects of depression (Haller et al., 2019).
Alkadhi, K. (2019). Brain Physiology and Pathophysiology in Mental Stress. ISRN Physiology, 203, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/806104
De Menezes Galvão, A. C., Almeida, R. N., de Sousa, G. M., Leocadio-Miguel, M. A., Palhano-Fontes, F., de Araujo, D. B., Lobão-Soares, B., Maia-de-Oliveira, J. P., Nunes, E. A., Hallak, J. E. C., Schuch, F. B., Sarris, J., & Galvão-Coelho, N. L. (2021). Pathophysiology of Major Depression by Clinical Stages. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.641779
Haller, H., Anheyer, D., Cramer, H., & Dobos, G. (2019). Complementary therapies for clinical depression: an overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open, 9(8), e028527. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028527
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2021). Major Depression. Retrieved April 8, 2022, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/major-depression
Wang, J., Wu, X., Lai, W., Long, E., Zhang, X., Li, W., Zhu, Y., Chen, C., Zhong, X., Liu, Z., Wang, D., & Lin, H. (2017). Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among outpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 7(8), e017173. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017173