Students will select one nursing research article that focuses on a study that used Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring as a theoretical framework.
Students should use as a guide, an appropriate Rapid Critical Appraisal Checklist found in Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt (2019; pp. 708-722).
The critiques are to be informal, although correct grammar, spelling, etc., are expected. The critique should include a brief description of the study that was reviewed and should address elements of the study relevant to critique.
Students will provide a written critique on a critical appraisal of the elements relevant to the nature of the research study such as type of study, design, quality of the study; and rationale, as well as implications for practice and further research and/or evaluation.
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Critical Appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
In Jean Watson’s theory of human caring, nursing practice is based on carative care. This theory states that caring defines nursing. Thus, Watson considers the transpersonal relationship between nurse practitioners and their patients as a significant factor in nursing care. The theory emphasizes the impact of a good patient-provider relationship on the quality and safety of patient care. This perspective shifts the focus of nursing practice from conventional care to include other factors that contribute to human health (Pajnkihar, Štiglic, & Vrbnjak, 2017). Watson describes nurse practitioners as scientific and artistic, thus tasking them with a critical role in restoring individuals’ health. Therefore, nurse practitioners should develop different skills and competencies to provide patients with the required care leading to patient satisfaction and improved health outcomes (Pajnkihar, Štiglic, & Vrbnjak, 2017). This paper presents a critical appraisal of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. It includes a brief description of the selected article, the selected study’s type, design, and quality, the rationale for choosing this study, implications for nursing practice, and further research.
A Brief description of the Selected Article
The selected article was authored by Ozan and Okumuş (2017). The study’s objective was to assess the impacts of nursing care on anxiety, coping, and distress based on Watson’s theory of human caring following infertility treatment failure. This RCT was conducted from April to November 2012 in Turkey with a sample size of 86 women. The theory of human caring was recommended as an effective nursing intervention for handling women in such incidents, thus lowering distress and anxiety and enabling them to cope with treatment failure.
Type, Design, and Quality of the Selected Study
The selected article is a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Most nursing researchers utilize the RCT approach due to the efficacy of this model in nursing experiments. In RCTs, nursing researchers select appropriate study participants based on the clinical issue being studied. The Sample size is then classified into 2 groups, including the intervention group and the control group. This aspect of randomized clinical trials is evident in the selected article since the authors subdivided participants into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group and the control group were assigned 45 and 41 participants, respectively. Therefore, the study is a randomized controlled trial. Additionally, participants are assigned to the intervention and control groups randomly in RCTs. This feature of RCTs was evident in the selected study since participants were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. Placebo treatment was administered to the control group for reference purposes.
Furthermore, the study adhered to the established guidelines. The study was conducted in Turkey, and only women who have met the legal age of consent were involved in the study. The inclusion criteria for this study were primarily infertile. Additionally, one qualified for this study if she could write and speak Turkish. The study was interested in women whose infertility had not been successfully treated. Various factors associated with infertility in women were considered during the study. The authors then highlighted Watson’s theory of human caring concepts incorporated into patient care provided to those women.
The rationale for selecting this Study
This article was selected since it incorporates Watson’s theory of human caring in managing anxiety, distress, and enhancing coping among infertile women whose treatment had failed. Watson’s theory entails ten carative factors that impact nursing care (Pajnkihar, Štiglic, & Vrbnjak, 2017). The authors captured the ten carative factors in their study, indicating their impact on patient care. The authors also chaired various consultative meetings with all the involved stakeholders to gather more information regarding the care provided to infertile women whose treatment had failed. The authors provided all the parties will all crucial details regarding the study to make an informed decision regarding participating in the study. Particularly, the authors disclosed the study’s objective to the participants and assured protection of their personal details. Additionally, the authors promised the participants to update them throughout the study about any progress. Finally, the participants were informed that they could leave at any point during the study. Participants who provided written consent after receiving the above information were involved in the study. The study findings indicated substantial improvement in anxiety, distress, and coping ability among infertile women whose treatment had failed following the incorporation of Watson’s model into their clinical care. The anxiety and distress scores in the intervention group dropped by thirteen and fourteen points, respectively. Additionally, an increase in coping scores was reported in the intervention group. Therefore, Watson’s model is effective in improving anxiety, distress, and coping ability in the selected patient population.
Implications for Nursing Practice
The study aimed at assessing the impact of Watson’s model on women whose infertility treatment interventions had failed. Hence, the researchers were interested in establishing a suitable nursing approach for managing anxiety and distress and improving coping levels among women with failed infertility treatment. According to Iordăchescu (2021), high stress and anxiety levels are reported among infertile women, compromising their capacity to cope with infertility. The study findings indicated substantial improvement in anxiety, distress, and coping ability among infertile women whose treatment had failed following the incorporation of Watson’s model into their clinical care. Based on the study findings, Watson’s human caring model is an effective evidence-based approach for reducing anxiety and distress and enhancing coping capacity among infertile women with failed treatment. According to Li (2019), evidence-based practices enhances clinical practices, improving quality, efficiency, and safety of patient care. Thus, nurse practitioners should incorporate Watson’s model when managing anxiety and distress among infertile women whose treatments have failed to rectify their conditions. This model will reduce anxiety and distress levels in this patient population, thus enabling these women to cope with their situations.
Although the study findings indicated the efficacy of Watson’s model in reducing anxiety and distress, and enhancing coping capacity among infertile women with failed treatment, further research in this area is required. First, a study can be conducted to assess the impact of this nursing model in reducing anxiety and distress among infertile men whose treatment has failed. Additionally, a study can be conducted on the efficacy of other nursing models in reducing anxiety and distress and enhancing coping capacity among infertile women with failed treatment
Overall, the authors conducted an RCT to assess the efficacy of Watson’s model in reducing anxiety and distress and enhancing coping capacity among infertile women with failed treatment. The authors conducted their study in Turkey and included 86 participants, 45 in the intervention group and 41 in the control group. The study findings indicated the efficacy of Watson’s theory in reducing anxiety and distress and improving coping levels among infertile women with failed treatment. Thus, nurse practitioners should incorporate this intervention into their clinical practices to enhance the management of anxiety and distress among infertile women, thus improving their coping capacity.
Iordăchescu, D. A., Paica, C. I., Boca, A. E., Gică, C., Panaitescu, A. M., Peltecu, G., … & Gică, N. (2021, April). Anxiety, Difficulties, and Coping of Infertile Women. In Healthcare; 9 (4): 466-459.
Li, S., Cao, M., & Zhu, X. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice. Medicine (Baltimore); 98(39): e17209. Doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000017209
Ozan, Y. D., & Okumuş, H. (2017). Effects of nursing care based on Watson’s theory of human caring on anxiety, distress, and coping, when infertility treatment fails: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of caring sciences, 6(2), 95.
Pajnkihar, M., Štiglic, G., & Vrbnjak, D. (2017). The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (dis) harmony with patient satisfaction. PeerJ, 5, e2940.
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