Classmate Response (1) PUB 655- Topic 8: Complex Emergencies (Please see upload for question and classmate’s essay)

Classmate Response (1) PUB 655- Topic 8: Complex Emergencies


This order is for a response to a classmate’s post. I have uploaded the question and the classmate’s essay that requires a response
Respond to the classmate essay by-
1. sharing an insight to the question and asking a probing question.
2. Also add other points related to the topic.
3. please elaborate on one or two points from the classmate’s essay. Please do not just re-write what the classmate wrote.
4. validating an idea
-Please use your own words and do not copy what she wrote
– Sources must be published within the last 5 years. It must be from 2017 and after and appropriate for the paper criteria and public health content.
– Please do not use blogs as references
-References should be in APA 7th ed.
-Add references to reference page
-Add the hyperlink/DOI for each reference in APA 7th edition format.
Thank you.


QUESTION- Topic 8 DQ 1

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Think about the need for shelter, food, potable water, sanitation, health care, and other service provisions as a country endures a complex emergency (war, civil conflict, and political violence). What is the role of international, national, nongovernmental organizations, military, and other humanitarian actors in humanitarian aid, relief, and response? Why are commercial interests a conflict and can compromise public health? Provide an example of a complex emergency and lesson learned that has emerged in the last 10 years.


CLASSMATE (Adriana) Response to the question-

There are three levels of intervention when responding to complex emergencies: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary preventions include stopping violence in situations like war which may impact food shortages, health service collapse, migration, and other serious public health outcomes (Merson et al., 2020). Secondary prevention involves quickly detecting food scarcity and population movements and preparing interventions to reduce these occurrences at international, national, and local levels where complex emergencies can occur (Merson et al., 2020). NGOs and other relief agencies need to gather resources, respond, implement warning systems, train personnel, building supplies, and determine logistical capacity to respond (Merson et al., 2020). National efforts include having an emergency preparedness plan that provides for established health care policies, treatment and triage protocols, training, and reserves of drugs and vaccines (Merson et al., 2020). Tertiary prevention requires that all organizations, from international to national or military and local, have available resources to address infectious diseases Merson et al., 2020).

The UN Security Council plays a dominant role in determining how the world responds to conflicts and how assistance should be protected from abuse. Host countries are actively involved in the relief efforts and allow temporary asylum for refugees (Merson et al., 2020). Many NGOs are directly engaged in emergency assistance, and some government or international agencies require them to sign codes of conduct and other performance agreements. A significant weakness of NGOs is they are poorly coordinated and have a different vision for helping reestablish countries after an emergency and creating a community reliant on their resources or offerings (Merson et al., 2020). According to Poverty, Inc., relief groups and NGOs’ commercial interests can be complicated based on their financial backers and citizens’ reliance on free resources that render the community incapable of being self-sufficient post-emergency.

The Syrian crisis remains ongoing, with over 6 million Syrians displaced within the country with over 14 million Syrians needing humanitarian assistance (Concern Worldwide, 2021). Although this crisis has been going on for more than a decade and is still happening, one lesson learned is the impact international relations and political forces can play on minimizing violence. Countries that lack political or government structure are left to continual civil wars that have the worst and most detrimental impact on citizens. Global health should also include fostering and nurturing international relationships and immediate responses that could help deter or dispel civil conflicts. This seems to be a constant conflict for African countries struggling to find themselves politically; unfortunately, it leaves the citizens to fend for themselves.


Concern Worldwide (2021, December 22). 7 of the worse humanitarian crises to know in 2022.

Merson, M. H., Black, R. E., & Mills, A. J. (Eds.). (2020). Global health: Diseases, programs, systems, and policies (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.





Classmate Response (1) PUB 655- Topic 8: Complex Emergencies

I agree with you that different levels of interventions are required for complex emergencies, including primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. In contemporary times they have been numerous crises that could be defined as complex such as the Syrian war that has been going on for more than ten years. International organizations such as the UN have been actively involved in numerous complex emergencies in a bid to maintain international peace and security and also maintain international assistance during an emergency (Culver et al., 2017). A complex emergency is defined as a humanitarian crisis that occurs in a given society, region, or country where there is a partial or total breakdown of authority as a result of foreign aggression or civil conflict. Complex emergencies are also defined as a humanitarian crisis that will go beyond the capacity and mandate of a given agency and which might require an international response. Effective responses to complex emergencies will normally require active humanitarian interventions and political support, especially from the Security Council (Kelly-Hope et al., 2021). Complex emergencies also require both political and humanitarian support and coordinated response, especially from international organizations. In contemporary times, the probability of complex emergencies has increased because of micro nationalism, religious extremism, ethnic rivalry, population pressure, environmental degradation, poverty, economic marginalization, and other issues that have been life-threatening to a significant number of the population. International organizations such as the United Nations work effectively and undertake heavy responsibilities so as to deliver humanitarian assistance during complex emergencies. International organizations also avoid humanitarian crises during complex emergencies (Kohrt & Carruth, 2022).



Culver, A., Rochat, R., & Cookson, S. T. (2017). Public health implications of complex emergencies and natural disasters. Conflict and Health, 11(1).

Kelly-Hope, L. A., Sanders, A. M., Harding-Esch, E., Willems, J., Ahmed, F., Vincer, F., & Hill, R. (2021). Complex emergencies and the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases in Africa: developing a practical approach for implementing safe and effective mapping and intervention strategies. Conflict and Health, 15(1).

Kohrt, B. A., & Carruth, L. (2022). Syndemic effects in complex humanitarian emergencies: A framework for understanding political violence and improving multi-morbidity health outcomes. Social Science & Medicine, 295, 113378.