Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Project: PICOT Paper – Reducing obesity in school aged children by reducing screen time

Population School-age children with obesity
Obesity among school-age children has reached epidemic levels in the United States. De Lorenzo et al. (2019) described obesity as a significant public health concern since it affects the physical, psychological, and cardiovascular health of the affected populations. Data from 2015-2016 shows that 1 in 5 children in the United States aged 6 to 19 years has obesity, and the rate has tripled since the 1970s (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). Risk factors include poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, genetics, and negative childhood events. Therefore, immediate, evidence-based, and population-driven interventions are necessary to reduce the surging rates.
Reducing screen time
Increased screen time is among the unhealthy lifestyles reducing the level of physical activity among school-age children. According to Robinson et al. (2017), screen media exposure increases obesity levels by encouraging more eating while viewing, reducing sleep duration, and increasing the possibility of taking sugary and low-nutrient foods. In addition, more screen time also exposes children to marketing that influences their eating habits and preferences. As a result, reducing screen time is a perfect intervention to keep children from these dangers to reduce obesity incidence.
Refer to the PICOT you developed for your evidence-based practice project proposal. If your PICOT required revision, include those revisions in this assignment. You will use your PICOT paper for all subsequent assignments you develop as part of your evidence-based practice project proposal in this course and in NUR-590, during which you will synthesize all of the sections into a final written paper detailing your evidence-based practice project proposal.

Write a 750-1,000-word paper that describes your PICOT.

Describe the population’s demographics and health concerns.
Describe the proposed evidence-based intervention and explain how your proposed intervention incorporates health policies and goals that support health care equity for the population of focus.
Compare your intervention to previous practice or research.
Explain what the expected outcome is for the intervention.
Describe the time for implementing the intervention and evaluating the outcome.
Explain how nursing science, social determinants of health, and epidemiologic, genomic, and genetic data are applied or synthesized to support population health management for the selected population.
Create an Appendix for your paper and attach the PICOT. Be sure to review feedback from your previous submission and revise your PICOT accordingly.
Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as the final appendix at the end of your paper.
Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.

You are required to cite at least four to six peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

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Solution

Population’s Demographics and Health Concerns

The population described in this evidence-based practice project is school-aged children (aged six to twelve). School-aged children are highly dependent on elder people such as parents, guardians and teachers for nutrition, hobbies, learning and general health (Al-Balawi et al., 2018). Besides, school-aged children undergo development in different aspects, including physical as evidenced by differences in height, weight and general body build. Some children develop obesity where body mass index is at the 95th percentile or above the normal range (Al-Balawi et al., 2018). A school-aged boy will be considered obese when his BMI is 25.5 or above, while the 95th percentile for school-aged girls is 24.5 (varies with age).

Childhood obesity is a major healthcare issue in the U.S, which puts children at risk for morbidities and poor health. According to a survey by the CDC 2017-2018, obesity had affected 20.3% of school-aged children.  The prevalence rate has surged over the years, indicating the need for immediate interventions. The risk factors for childhood obesity include poor eating habits, genetic predisposition, lack of aerobic physical exercises, and unhealthy childhood events.

According to Jackson and Cunningham (2017), childhood obesity affects children’s physical, psychological, and cardiovascular aspects of health. Obese children are more vulnerable to heart diseases, cancer, and type 2 diabetes than normal children are. Generally, the level of heath declines in obese children who are less productive as expected. Healthcare professionals continue to intensify interventions to reduce the prevalence of obesity. Efforts of healthcare professionals to reduce the prevalence of obesity are unsuccessful due to existing risk factors, including sedentary living (Jackson and Cunningham, 2017). Increased screen time enhances the consumption of fast foods, low physical activity, among other sedentary living behaviors.  Mozafarian et al. (2017) highlight that regulating screen time is significant in reducing childhood obesity. Screen time encompasses the duration taken in playing computer games, watching and using technology to socialize. Parents, teachers, healthcare providers have a role in collaborating and encouraging children to reduce screen time (Mozafarian et al., 2017). Educators should also encourage children to participate in physical activities at home, school or other social facilities in the community.

Proposed Evidence-Based Intervention

The proposed EBP intervention discussed in this Benchmark Evidence-Based Practice Project is the reduction of screen time among school-aged children to control obesity coupled with educating parents and children. Obesity is a significant public health concern that requires prompt, evidence-based, and population-driven actions to decrease the surging rates. Studies show that increased screen time is an unhealthy lifestyle that causes children to reduce their participation in physical activity (Mozafarian et al., 2017). The authors highlighted that the increased obesity levels relate to screen media exposure, which more eating while viewing. Other unhealthy practices related to increased screen time are reduced sleep duration, increased intake of sugary food and a low-nutrient diet. The evidence from studies reveals the dire need to reduce screen time as an appropriate intervention to keep school-aged children from danger related to obesity.

Health Policies and Goals

The proposed intervention incorporates child health policies of providing a holistic equal, and unified approach to child development and health. Besides, the intervention incorporates global health policies involving nutrition education in schools, a ban of food vending machines in schools, regulating complementary foods and alcoholic beverages to children, and restricting high fat, sugar or salt foodstuffs to children. The project incorporates the Sustainable Development goal of protecting children and adolescents against diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity. The goal supports equity of children to ensure they live within normal weight for height ranges.

Comparison of Intervention to Previous Practice or Research

The study by Hamilton et al. (2016) showed that parental responsibilities in modeling children help regulate their screen time, involvement in physical exercises and proper nutrition. The authors explain that the shortage of home-focused interventions addressing healthy behaviors contributes to childhood obesity. Study findings also recommend parental awareness of the relationship between obesity and screen time and the need to control the behavior (Lin et al., 2021). Therefore, parental education is integral in encouraging them to model children into healthy behaviors.

Expected Outcome for the Intervention

The author expects that parental education on a child’s screen time will lead to behavioral change. Education strategies will increase parental awareness of the relationship between screen time and obesity (Lin et al., 2021). The author expects parents to regulate children’s screen time and guide them into physical exercises and healthy eating. The outcome of the reposed intervention will be a reduction of obesity among school-age children.

Time for Implementing the Intervention and Evaluating the Outcome

The implementation of this EBP will be immediate to promote gradual behavioral change among the focus population with the assistance of their parents. Instant implementation of the project will help produce effects within six months. Evaluation of the outcome will occur after six months of interventions. Summative evaluation will be significant in determining the extent of achievement and areas requiring improvement.

Application of Nursing Science, Social Determinants of Health, and Epidemiologic, Genomic, and Genetic Data

In this evidence-based practice project, the author considers theories from nursing science, which provide practical concepts in managing population health concerns. The author acknowledges that social determinants of health or the conditions around a child’s birth, living and growth affect weight management. The social environment when children grow can influence the development of obesity. Epidemiological data on obesity, dietary intake, physical activity among children and other variables is integral in this EBP. Genomic and genetic data also influence the prevalence of obesity since acquired characteristics predispose some children to this health issue.

In conclusion, school-age children need protection and quality health interventions against vulnerabilities, including overweight and obesity (Lin et al., 2021). Nurses should use evidence-based practice to promote the adoption of best interventions, which enhance children’s health. Conducting parental education on screen time and obesity is an evidence-based practice that will reduce the incidence, increase the child’s involvement in physical exercises, and reduce the intake of too many calories.

Appendix

PICOT question

Among school-aged children, does parental education on-screen time reduce the prevalence of obesity coupled with increased involvement in physical activity and reduced intake of too many calories within six months compared to no intervention.

References

Al-Balawi, M. M., Al-Harbi, M. F., & Yakout, S. M. H.   Maternal Perception of Body Mass Index and Dietary Habits Leading to Obesity Among Saudi School-Aged Children a Comparative Study. World3(1), 23-31.

Hamilton, K., Spinks, T., White, K. M., Kavanagh, D. J., & Walsh, A. M. (2016). A psychosocial analysis of parents’ decisions for limiting their young child’s screen time: An examination of attitudes, social norms and roles, and control perceptions. British Journal of Health Psychology21(2), 285-301.

Jackson, S. L., & Cunningham, S. A. (2017). The stability of children’s weight status over time, and the role of television, physical activity, and diet. Preventive medicine100, 229-234.

Lin, Y. M., Kuo, S. Y., Chang, Y. K., Lin, P. C., Lin, Y. K., Lee, P. H., … & Chen, S. R. (2021). Effects of parental education on screen time, sleep disturbances, and psychosocial adaptation among Asian preschoolers: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing56, e27-e34.

Mozafarian, N., Motlagh, M. E., Heshmat, R., Karimi, S., Mansourian, M., Mohebpour, F., … & Kelishadi, R. (2017). Factors associated with screen time in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study. International journal of preventive medicine8.

 

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