Topic 1 DQ 1

Identify a cardiac or respiratory issue and outline the key steps necessary to include for prevention and health promotion.

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Topic 1 DQ 1
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex respiratory condition that leads to a limitation in airflow. It is a chronic, gradual disorder manifesting with stable phases that are increasingly interrupted by acute exacerbations (Gentry & Gentry, 2017). COPD can include disorders that result in airflow obstruction such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis or a combination of these disorders. The functional outcome of these abnormalities is limitations in expiratory airflow. The primary causative factor of COPD in more than 90% of patients is cigarette smoking (Gentry & Gentry, 2017). Smoking is associated with changes in the airways that impair airflow. Environmental and genetic factors are also associated with COPD.
Prevention and health promotion in COPD should focus on the elimination of the causative factors. Cessation of smoking is considered the most effective measure in preventing and slow COPD progression (Papi et al., 2020). Therefore, prevention measures should include educating individuals to quit cigarette smoking and avoid passive smoking. Health education can be provided to teenagers and young adults on the health effects of tobacco to reduce the chances of smoking initiation (Papi et al., 2020). In addition, prevention should include implementing public health policies that minimize occupational exposure to chemicals and dust and reduce air pollutants in the indoor and outdoor settings.
Health promotion in COPD seeks to involve and empower COPD patients to adopt healthy behaviors to slow the progression of the disease and lower the risk of morbidities. Health promotion should include smoking cessation to slow COPD progression and reduce exacerbations (Ambrosino & Bertella, 2018). Lifestyle changes focus on physical exercises and diet. COPD patients should be recommended to engage in exercise training programs to alleviate symptoms, improve exercise capacity and quality of life (Ambrosino & Bertella, 2018). COPD patients should be advised to take a healthy diet to maintain good health and promote weight loss. A high intake of fruits and vegetables should be recommended since it is connected with a decreased COPD incidence in current and ex-smokers.
Ambrosino, N., & Bertella, E. (2018). Lifestyle interventions in prevention and comprehensive management of COPD. Breathe (Sheffield, England), 14(3), 186–194.
Gentry, S., & Gentry, B. (2017). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: diagnosis and management. American family physician, 95(7), 433-441.
Papi, A., Morandi, L., & Fabbri, L. M. (2020). Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 41(3), 453-462.


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