NRS 428 Topic 2 Epidemiology And Communicable Diseases

NRS 428 Topic 2 Epidemiology And Communicable Diseases

Objectives:

  1. Apply the principles of epidemiology to community health nursing.
  2. Explain the value of demographic data in community health.
  3. Apply the epidemiology triangle to a communicable disease occurring at a global level.
  4. Evaluate the communicable disease chain model.
  5. Discuss the impact of global health issues on public health systems.
  6. Explain how social determinants of health contribute to the development of disease.

Epidemiology Paper (8 PAGES, 10 REFERENCES)
Assessment Description
Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection

  • Chickenpox
  • Tuberculosis
  • Influenza
  • Mononucleosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • HIV
  • Ebola
  • Measles
  • Polio
  • Influenza

Epidemiology Paper Requirements

  • Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
  • Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
  • Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
  • Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
  • Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
    A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.
Resources
Collapse All ResourcesCollapse All
Social Determinants of Health
Read “Social Determinants of Health,” from the Healthy People 2030 website.
https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/social-determinants-health
________________________________________
Communicable Disease Chain
Refer to the “Communicable Disease Chain” as needed to complete your assignment.
NRS-428VN-RS2-CommunicableDiseaseChain.doc
________________________________________
World Health Organization
Explore the World Health Organization (WHO) website.
http://www.who.int/en/
________________________________________
2017 National Notifiable Conditions (Historical)
Explore the 2017 National Notifiable Conditions (Historical) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/notifiable/2017/
________________________________________
Chain of Infection
Use the media piece “Chain of Infection” to assist you in completing your Topic 2 assignment.
http://lc.gcumedia.com/nsg403c/chain-of-infection/chain-of-infection-v1.1.html
________________________________________
Community and Public Health: The Future of Health Care
Read Chapter 2 in Community and Public Health: The Future of Health Care.
https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/community-and-public-health_the-future-of-health-care_1e.php
________________________________________
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Explore the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) website.
https://www.hhs.gov/
________________________________________
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Explore the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
https://www.cdc.gov/
________________________________________
Families USA
Explore the Families USA website.

Home

Attachments
Epidemiology Paper – Rubric
Collapse All Epidemiology Paper – RubricCollapse All
Comprehensive Description of a Communicable Disease and the Demographic of Interest
12.5 points
Criteria Description
Comprehensive Description of a Communicable Disease and the Demographic of Interest
5. Excellent
12.5 points
Overview describing the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with a thorough, accurate, and clear overview of all of the clinical descriptors.
4. Good
11.5 points
Clinical description of the communicable disease and demographic of interest is provided. Summary is brief but accurate.
3. Satisfactory
11 points
Overview of the demographic of interest and clinical description of the communicable disease is presented with some inaccuracies of the clinical descriptors.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
10 points
Limited and/or vague summary of demographic of interest and communicable disease is provided. Overview does not offer a clear representation of information necessary for epidemiological study.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Demographic of interest and clinical description are omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.
Determinants of Health and Explanation of How Determinants Contribute to Disease Development
12.5 points
Criteria Description
Determinants of Health and Explanation of How Determinants Contribute to Disease Development
5. Excellent
12.5 points
Paper comprehensively discusses the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease, explains their contribution to disease development, and provides evidence to support main points.
4. Good
11.5 points
Paper describes each determinant of health with a comprehensive discussion of their contribution to disease development and progression.
3. Satisfactory
11 points
Paper identifies the determinants of health in relation to the communicable disease selected but does not include an explanation of their role in the development of disease.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
10 points
Paper partially describes the determinants of health in relation to disease development.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Description of the determinants of health and their role in disease development is omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.
Epidemiologic Triangle (Host Factors, Agent Factors, and Environmental Factors
25 points
Criteria Description
Epidemiologic Triangle (Host Factors, Agent Factors, and Environmental Factors
5. Excellent
25 points
The communicable disease is described thoroughly, accurately, and clearly within an epidemiological triangle. A visual description of the triangle and how the components of the model interact is included.
4. Good
23 points
The communicable disease is described accurately within the context of the epidemiologic triangle. A brief description of factors and interaction is presented.
3. Satisfactory
22 points
The communicable disease is described accurately and clearly within the context of the epidemiologic triangle.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
20 points
The communicable disease is described with some inaccuracies within the epidemiologic triangle. A visual description of the factors and interaction is not present.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Description of the epidemiologic triangle is omitted or presented with many inaccuracies.
Role of the Community Health Nurse and Importance of Demographic Data
25 points
Criteria Description
Role of the Community Health Nurse and Importance of Demographic Data
5. Excellent
25 points
Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive of the community nurse’s responsibilities to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection and analysis, and follow-up. A clear explanation of the importance of demographic data to community health is presented.
4. Good
23 points
Discussion of the role of community health nurse is clear, with a comprehensive description of skills associated with community assessment and planning. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is presented.
3. Satisfactory
22 points
Discussion of the role of the community health nurses is limited, with a brief overview of skills associated with community assessment and planning. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is summarized.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
20 points
Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is vague, with no integration of case finding, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, or follow-up skills. An incomplete explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is provided.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Discussion of the role of the community health nurse is omitted or unclear. An explanation of why demographic data are necessary to community health is omitted or unclear.
National Agency or Organization That Works to Addresses Communicable Disease
12.5 points
Criteria Description
National Agency or Organization That Works to Addresses Communicable Disease
5. Excellent
12.5 points
An agency or organization is identified. A clear and accurate description of efforts to address communicable disease is offered.
4. Good
11.5 points
An agency or organization is identified, but discussion regarding efforts to address communicable disease is brief.
3. Satisfactory
11 points
An agency or organization is identified, but discussion regarding efforts to address communicable disease is lacking.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
10 points
An agency or organization is identified, but discussion is vague or inaccurate in relation to the communicable disease chosen.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Agency and description of contribution are omitted.
Global Implication
12.5 points
Criteria Description
Global Implication
5. Excellent
12.5 points
A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, comprehensive, and inclusive with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.
4. Good
11.5 points
A discussion of the global implication of the disease is clear, with a comprehensive description of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.
3. Satisfactory
11 points
A discussion of the global implication of the disease is limited, with some integration of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is provided.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
10 points
A discussion of the global implication of the disease is vague, with no integration of how this is addressed in other countries or cultures and if the disease is endemic to a particular area. An example is not provided.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Global implication of the disease is omitted or unclear.
Thesis, Position, or Purpose
6.25 points
Criteria Description
Communicates reason for writing and demonstrates awareness of audience.
5. Excellent
6.25 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is clearly communicated throughout and clearly directed to a specific audience.
4. Good
5.75 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is adequately presented. An awareness of the appropriate audience is demonstrated.
3. Satisfactory
5.5 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is discernable in most aspects but is occasionally weak or unclear. There is limited awareness of the appropriate audience.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
5 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is unfocused or confused. There is very little awareness of the intended audience.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is not discernible. No awareness of the appropriate audience is evident.
Development, Structure, and Conclusion
6.25 points
Criteria Description
Advances position or purpose throughout writing; conclusion aligns to and evolves from development.
5. Excellent
6.25 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is logically advanced throughout. The progression of ideas is coherent and unified. A clear and logical conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.
4. Good
5.75 points
The thesis, position, or purpose is advanced in most aspects. Ideas clearly build on each other. Conclusion aligns to the development of the purpose.
3. Satisfactory
5.5 points
Limited advancement of thesis, position, or purpose is discernable. There are inconsistencies in organization or the relationship of ideas. Conclusion is simplistic and not fully aligned to the development of the purpose.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
5 points
Writing lacks logical progression of the thesis, position, or purpose. Some organization is attempted, but ideas are disconnected. Conclusion is unclear and not supported by the overall development of the purpose.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
No advancement of the thesis, position, or purpose is evident. Connections between paragraphs are missing or inappropriate. No conclusion is offered.
Evidence
6.25 points
Criteria Description
Selects and integrates evidence to support and advance position/purpose; considers other perspectives.
5. Excellent
6.25 points
Specific and appropriate evidence is included. Relevant perspectives of others are clearly considered.
4. Good
5.75 points
Relevant evidence that includes other perspectives is used.
3. Satisfactory
5.5 points
Evidence is used but is insufficient or of limited relevance. Simplistic explanation or integration of other perspectives is present.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
5 points
Evidence is limited or irrelevant. The interpretation of other perspectives is superficial or incorrect.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Evidence to support the thesis, position, or purpose is absent. The writing relies entirely on the perspective of the writer.
Mechanics of Writing
2.5 points
Criteria Description
Includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.
5. Excellent
2.5 points
No mechanical errors are present. Appropriate language choice and sentence structure are used throughout.
4. Good
2.3 points
Few mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.
3. Satisfactory
2.2 points
Occasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
2 points
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Errors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout.
Format/Documentation
3.75 points
Criteria Description
Uses appropriate style, such as APA, MLA, etc., for college, subject, and level; documents sources using citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., appropriate to assignment and discipline.
5. Excellent
3.75 points
No errors in formatting or documentation are present.
4. Good
3.45 points
Appropriate format and documentation are used with only minor errors.
3. Satisfactory
3.3 points
Appropriate format and documentation are used, although there are some obvious errors.
2. Less Than Satisfactory
3 points
Appropriate format is attempted, but some elements are missing. Frequent errors in documentation of sources are evident.
1. Unsatisfactory
0 points
Appropriate format is not used. No documentation of sources is provided.

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             Communicable diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and influenza, have a considerable effect on the global population. Factors such as globalization significantly impact the spread and severity of communicable diseases. For example, the constant changes in the status of human interactions affect the spread of infectious diseases globally. Nurses and other healthcare providers have the essential role of minimizing the spread and impact of communicable diseases in their populations. They utilize primary, secondary, and tertiary health promotion methods to empower the affected and those at risk to transform their lifestyles and behaviors. They also select best practice interventions that optimize care outcomes, including safety, quality, and efficiency. Therefore, this research paper explores the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS.

Description of the Communicable Disease

HIV/AIDS is the chosen communicable disease. HIV/AIDS is a viral infection attributed to the human immunodeficiency virus. It attacks the immune system of the body. Lack of treatment leads to viral progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). People affected by HIV/AIDS experience various symptoms during its symptomatic phase. They include fever, chills, night sweats, rash, muscle aches, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, sore throat, oral ulcers, and diarrhea that last for a week (Dumais, 2017). Patients also report rapid weight loss, pneumonia, skin blotches, and neurological disorders, including depression and memory loss.

The main transmission mode of HIV/AIDS is through contact with infected fluids, including semen, breast milk, blood, or vaginal secretions. Direct transmission also occurs during the utero life, where the mother transmits the virus to the fetus during pregnancy and delivery. Behaviors such as having multiple sexual partners, injectable drugs, unprotected sex, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases predispose to HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS is associated with several complications. They include tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, candidiasis, and pneumocystis pneumonia. Patients are also increasingly predisposed to non-AIDS-related cancers, liver disease, frailty, renal disease, and diabetes (Capriotti, 2018; Dumais, 2017). HIV/AIDS does not have a cure. However, patients are treated with antiretroviral medications that suppress the viral load in the body. Symptomatic treatments for conditions such as oral candidiasis, meningitis, and pneumonia are also used to prevent further immune suppression.

The existing statistics show HIV/AIDS as a national and global health concern. Statistics show that 34800 new HIV/AIDS cases were reportedin 2019. It represented a decline of 8% in the incidence rate. The rate of infections was highest among people aged 45-54 years, followed by those aged 35-44 years. Overall, about 1.2 million people in the USA  have HIV/AIDS, with 13% not knowing their status. The minority groups, including bisexual, gay, and other men that have sex with men, lead in the populations affected by HIV/AIDS in the USA (HIV.GOV, 2021). HIV/AIDS is a reportable disease. Healthcare institutions report diagnosed cases of HIV/AIDS to the CDC’s National HIV Surveillance System and the respective departments of health in different states. The cases are reportedafter they are diagnosed.

Social Determinants of Health

Social determinants of health refer to modifiable factors that contribute to health inequalities. Factors evident in places where people are born, live, work, and thrive act as social determinants of their health. HIV/AIDS is associated with several determinants of health. One of them is ethnicity (Hogan et al., 2021). HIV/AIDS is high in ethnic minorities, including African Americans. Socioeconomic status or poverty is also another social determinant of health. Accordingly, the rate of HIV/AIDS is high among individuals from socio-economically deprived families. Factors such as engagement in risky sexual activities predispose them to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS.

Employment status is also another social determinant of health in HIV/AIDS. Employment status influences an individual’s socioeconomic status, access, and care affordability. The rate of HIV/AIDS tends to be higher among unemployed individuals than employed due to their increased predisposition to risky behaviors, including drug abuse and prostitution. The level of education is also a critical social determinant of health in HIV/AIDS. High rates of HIV/AIDS have been reported in populations with a low level of education (Friedman et al., 2018). Level of education influences constructs such as level of awareness, employment, and socioeconomic status of the population. Access to care also acts as a source of inequality in individuals affected by HIV/AIDS. Populations with limited access to healthcare due to lack of medical insurance coverage and unaffordability of care are likely to report high cases of HIV/AIDS. Factors such as delays in early diagnosis and initiation of treatment contribute to poor outcomes in HIV/AIDS management. Low access to healthcare services also affects the knowledge of the population about the prevention of the spread of HIV/AIDS (Santos et al., 2018). Therefore, it is important that interventions that address the social determinants of health in HIV/AIDS be implemented to promote the population’s health.

Epidemiological Triangle

An epidemiological triangle is a tool used to develop a deeper understanding of the mechanism of an infectious disease in the population. It provides insights into the relationships between agent, host, and environment in infectious disease. The agent refers to the microorganism causing the disease. Concerning HIV/AIDS, the agent causing the infection is a virus. The commonest type of virus causing HIV/AIDS is HIV-1 (Gopalappa et al., 2017). HIV-2 is less common with low virulence and similar symptoms to HIV-1. Factors related to HIV influence its ability to cause infection to the host. They include virulence or pathogenicity and dose. Virulence is the ability of a disease-causing microorganism to cause disease. HIV has a high level of virulence, as it can invade and multiply itself in the host. The dose refers to the amount or concentration of a disease-causing microorganism (Gopalappa et al., 2017). Often, HIV exists in high doses with an enhanced ability to invade and multiply in the host. HIV spreads through hosts’ direct contact with infected fluids, including semen, vaginal secretions, and blood.

Host in the epidemiological triangle refers to the carrier of the disease. It refers to the individuals affected by HIV/AIDS. Several host factors influence their ability to be affected by HIV and the development of AIDs. One of them is immune status. The risk for HIV infection is high in individuals with lowered immunity. The rate of viral invasion, multiplication, and further suppression is high. The other host-related factor is individual behaviors. Behaviors such as engaging in unprotected sex, having multiple sexual partners, and using injected drugs with sharing needles increase the risk of host exposure to the agent (Mahdavi et al., 2021). Pregnancy is also another host-related factor for HIV/AIDS. Pregnant mothers infected with HIV/AIDS have an increased risk of infecting their unborn babies through mother-to-child transmission or during delivery and breastfeeding. Individuals suffering from existing medical conditions are also increasingly predisposed to HIV/AIDS. Co-existing comorbidities low immune status of the patients, hence, their vulnerability to the agent. Patients on existing treatments for malignancies also have a high risk of HIV infection due to their suppressed immunity (Joas et al., 2018). Patients receiving blood transfusions or involved in road accidents are also at risk due to contact with contaminated fluids.

Environment refers to the external factors that affect the epidemiologic outbreak. Environmental factors affect the spread of the disease,not attributed to the host and agent. The environmental factors in HIV/AIDS include communities with a high rate of sexually transmitted diseases and a low level of reporting (Dumais, 2017). Such conditions contribute to the flourishing of HIV/AIDS. Socioeconomic factors such as poverty also contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS by limiting access to the needed treatment. Social discrimination or isolation of individuals affected by HIV/AIDS also discourages the populations from utilizing screening and treatment services (Dumais, 2017). Consequently, they contribute to the increased spread of the disease in the population.

Role of the Community Health Nurse

Community health nurses have several roles in the epidemiological management and prevention of HIV/AIDS. One of the roles is case finding. Case finding entails the identification of cases affected by HIV/AIDS and the populations at risk. The community health nurse screens the population to identify the cases. She also determines the vulnerable populations, including sex workers, transgender persons, substance and drug abusers, and individuals with multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex (Mottiar& Lodge, 2018). The nurse educates the vulnerable population about the preventive measures against HIV/AIDs and the importance of screening and early treatment for the identified cases.

The community health nurse also reports identified cases to the respective authorities. Reporting is important to determine HIV/ the prevalence, incidence, and severity of HIV/AIDS in specific populations. The data aids in distributing resources for HIV/AIDS to the population. The nurse also collects data related to HIV/AIDS in the population (Knettel et al., 2021). The data provide insights into the severity, spread, and patterns of the disease in the population. The nurse analyzes the collected data to provide an accurate picture of the population’s disease pattern, spread, and burden. The nurse also disseminates the analyzed data to the population, healthcare providers, and public health officials to stimulate action. Dissemination approaches, including community presentations, journal publications, conference presentations, and new policies based on the outcomes, are effective. The community health nurse also undertakes follow-up of cases. Follow-up aims to ensure adherence to treatment by the infected and determine other needs that may affect the treatment outcomes (Knettel et al., 2021). Therefore, community health nurses play crucial roles in the epidemiological management of HIV/AIDS.

National Agency

UNAIDS is a national agency that addresses HIV/AIDS in the USA and other global states. UNAIDS is a global effort initiated to drive efforts to end HIV/AIDS by 2030 as part of the global Sustainable Development Goals. The agency prides itself in inspiring regional, global, national, and local leadership in addressing HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS,2021). The agency acts as a global problem solver by incorporating the populations affected by HIV/AIDS in decision-making. It also delivers and monitors the response initiatives against HIV/AIDS. The agency collaborates with countries and communities to develop appropriate interventions to ending HIV/AIDS and advocate the adoption of measures to address policy and legal barriers to HIV/AIDS response. UNAIDS benefit patients affected by HIV/AIDS in several ways. First, it advocates for access to treatment and preventive services by the affected populations and those at risk (UNAIDS,2021). An example is seen from expanding the access to antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDs patients. UNAIDS also advocates the rights of HIV patients. It ensures the prioritization of their needs in policy planning and implementation. It also supports programs to enhance the quality of life of HIV patients, including education, gender-based, and social protection of their rights.

Global Implication

HIV/AIDS has adverse global implications. Statistics show that HIV/AIDS affects about 38 million people globally. It acts as a source of disease burden since most of the affected globally do not access preventive and treatment services. HIV/AIDS affects the quality of life of the affected patients and their significant others. Patients require frequent hospitalizations for opportunistic infections, which can take a toll on them and their significant others (Navon, 2018). The need for frequent hospital visits and hospitalizations also result in declining productivity among the patients and their families.

HIV/AIDS also has huge financial implications for the global states. For example, the USA spent more than $34.8 billion in 2019 treating and combating HIV/AIDS (KFF, 2021). According to Dieleman et al. (2018), there was an increase in the annualized rate of healthcare spending per capita due to HIV/AIDS from 1995 to 2015. The largest growth was reported in upper-middle-income countries and low-middle-income countries. The increase led to $9.1 trillion spent on healthcare globally in treating and combating HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS also contributes to a high percentage of mortalities globally. For example, the UNAIDS report that 47.8 million have died due to HIV/AIDS-related illnesses since its start as a global epidemic. In addition, 680000 people died due to HIV-related illnesses in 2020(UNAIDS, n.d.-a). UNICEF (2021) reports that about 330 children globally died due to HIV/AIDS-related illnesses daily in 2020. Factors such as inadequate access to HIV treatment and prevention contributed to most children’s mortalities.

Countries have adopted several interventions to address HIV/AIDS. One of the interventions adopted in most countries is increasing access to treatment by ensuring free antiretroviral drugs. Access to treatment prolongs the life of the affected and improves their overall quality of life (Chenneville et al., 2020; Mandsager et al., 2018). Screening services for HIV/AIDS are also free. The population can access free HIV testing and health educational services. The population also receives support in nutritional aid to address nutrition-related deficiencies.

Conclusion

HIV/AIDS is an epidemic with a high disease burden globally. Epidemiological analysis shows the presence of the host, agent, and environmental factors that influence its spread globally. The community health nurse plays several roles in addressing HIV/AIDS. The roles include case finding, data collection, analysis, dissemination, and follow-up of patients. HIV/AIDS has several complications, which increase the need for timely treatment of identified cases. Vulnerable populations should be prioritized in policy decision-making to minimize the spread and impact of the disease in them. Agencies such as UNAIDS play vital roles in addressing HIV/AIDS. Countries should collaborate in implementing interventions that reduce the incidence and prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS to promote the health of the public.

References

Capriotti, T. (2018).HIV/AIDS: An Update for Home Healthcare Clinicians.Home Healthcare Now, 36(6), 348–355. https://doi.org/10.1097/NHH.0000000000000706

Chenneville, T., Gabbidon, K., Hanson, P., & Holyfield, C. (2020).The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV Treatment and Research: A Call to Action.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(12), 4548. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124548

Dieleman, J. L., Haakenstad, A., Micah, A., Moses, M., Abbafati, C., Acharya, P., Adhikari, T. B., Adou, A. K., Kiadaliri, A. A., Alam, K., Alizadeh-Navaei, R., Alkerwi, A., Ammar, W., Antonio, C. A. T., Aremu, O., Asgedom, S. W., Atey, T. M., Avila-Burgos, L., Awasthi, A., … Murray, C. J. L. (2018). Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: Domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995–2015.The Lancet, 391(10132), 1799–1829. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30698-6

Dumais, N. (2017). HIV/AIDS: Contemporary Challenges.BoD – Books on Demand.

Friedman, E. E., Dean, H. D., &Duffus, W. A. (2018). Incorporation of Social Determinants of Health in the Peer-Reviewed Literature: A Systematic Review of Articles Authored by the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Public Health Reports, 133(4), 392–412. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918774788

Gopalappa, C., Farnham, P. G., Chen, Y.-H., &Sansom, S. L. (2017).Progression and Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PATH 2.0): A New, Agent-Based Model to Estimate HIV Transmissions in the United States.Medical Decision Making, 37(2), 224–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X16668509

HIV.GOV. (2021, June 2). U.S. Statistics. HIV.Gov. https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/statistics

Hogan, J. W., Galai, N., & Davis, W. W. (2021).Modeling the Impact of Social Determinants of Health on HIV.AIDS and Behavior, 25(2), 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03399-2

Joas, S., Parrish, E. H., Gnanadurai, C. W., Lump, E., Stürzel, C. M., Parrish, N. F., Learn, G. H., Sauermann, U., Neumann, B., Rensing, K. M., Fuchs, D., Billingsley, J. M., Bosinger, S. E., Silvestri, G., Apetrei, C., Huot, N., Garcia-Tellez, T., Müller-Trutwin, M., Hotter, D., … Kirchhoff, F. (2018). Species-specific host factors rather than virus-intrinsic virulence determine primate lentiviral pathogenicity. Nature Communications, 9(1), 1371. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03762-3

KFF. (2021). U.S. Federal Funding for HIV/AIDS: Trends Over Time. 6.

Knettel, B. A., Fernandez, K. M., Wanda, L., Amiri, I., Cassiello-Robbins, C., Watt, M. H., Mmbaga, B. T., &Relf, M. V. (2021). The Role of Community Health Workers in HIV Care Engagement: A Qualitative Study of Stakeholder Perspectives in Tanzania.Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 32(6), 682–692. https://doi.org/10.1097/JNC.0000000000000267

Mahdavi, F., Shams, M., Sadrebazzaz, A., Shamsi, L., Omidian, M., Asghari, A., Hassanipour, S., &Salemi, A. M. (2021). Global prevalence and associated risk factors of diarrheagenic Giardia duodenalis in HIV/AIDS patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Microbial Pathogenesis, 160, 105202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105202

Mandsager, P., Marier, A., Cohen, S., Fanning, M., Hauck, H., & Cheever, L. W. (2018).Reducing HIV-Related Health Disparities in the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.American Journal of Public Health, 108(S4), S246–S250. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304689

Mottiar, S., & Lodge, T. (2018). The role of community health workers in supporting South Africa’s HIV/ AIDS treatment programme.African Journal of AIDS Research, 17(1), 54–61. https://doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2017.1402793

Navon, L. (2018). Hospitalization Trends and Comorbidities Among People With HIV/AIDS Compared With the Overall Hospitalized Population, Illinois, 2008-2014. Public Health Reports, 133(4), 442–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918777254

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